http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/issue/feed Kalbotyra 2019-09-17T19:48:35+03:00 Aurelija Usonienė aurelija.usoniene@flf.vu.lt Open Journal Systems <p>Įkurtas 1958 m. Publikuoja įvairių kalbų sinchroninius ir diachroninius, taip pat ir tarpkalbinių aspektų, tyrimus.</p> http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12422 The Corpus of Lithuanian Children Language: Development and application for modern studies in language acquisition 2019-09-17T19:47:55+03:00 Ingrida Balčiūnienė ingrida.balciuniene@vdu.lt Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė laura.kamandulyte@vdu.lt <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper describes The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language and its possible applications for modern studies on the first language acquisition. First of all, the procedure of data collection for the Corpus is discussed. Furthermore, the main methodological principles of longitudinal and experimental data compilation and transciption are decribed. Finally, different studies in developmental psycholinguistics which have been carried out so far and which demonstrate possible ways of the application of the Corpus data for different scientific purposes are introduced.</p> <p>The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language developed at Vytautas Magnus University comprises typical and atypical, longitudinal and experimental data of the Lithuanian language development. The Corpus was compiled using different methodological approaches, such as natural observation and semi-experiment. The longitudinal data (conversations between the target children and their caretakers) compiled according to the requirement of natural observation includes transcribed and morphologically annotated speech of two typically-developing children, one late talker, one early talker, one child from a low SES family, and a pair of twins. The data was collected during the period of 1993–2017 and and it can be divided into three cohorts. The semi-experimentaldata (~ 124 hours) comes from numerous studies in narratives and spontaneous dialogues elicited from typically-developing and language-impaired monolingual and bilingual (pre-) school age children.</p> <p>From the very beginning of data collection for the The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, studies in the develomental changes of typical child language have been carried out. Over the past decade, these studies have been supplemented by statistical analysis of elicited semi-experimental data; the majority of these studies deal with typical vs. atypical (delayed or impaired) language acquisition and with differences between acquision of Lithuanian in a monolingual vs. bi-/polylingual settings.</p> <p>The paper provides an overview of data of The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, which have been collected from 1993 but still needed to be structurized according to the employed methodology of data compilation and possible applications for different scientific purposes.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12423 Verkehrsberuhigen, karrierefördern, nervenzerrütten: Zur Rolle partizipialer Objektinkorporation bei der pseudokompositionellen Verbbildung im Deutschen 2019-09-17T19:47:51+03:00 Arash Farhidnia a.farhidnia@gmail.com <p>[straipsnis ir santrauka vokiečių kalba]</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12424 Subject case alternation in negated existential, locative, and possessive clauses in Latvian 2019-09-17T19:47:46+03:00 Andra Kalnača andra.kalnaca@lu.lv Ilze Lokmane ilze.lokmane@lu.lv <p>[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba]</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12425 Endophoric definiteness: An analysis based on Romanian data 2019-09-17T19:47:42+03:00 Antanas Keturakis antanas.keturakis@flf.vu.lt <p>[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba]</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12426 Determination and modification: Topology of prenominal attributes in Lithuanian 2019-09-17T19:47:37+03:00 Ringailė Trakymaitė ringaile.trakymaite@flf.vu.lt <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper offers a description of the linear structure of the definite Lithuanian noun phrase (NP) with an emphasis on prenominal attributes. Morphological and syntactical coding of definiteness is examined through the comparison of NP structures in Lithuanian (a language with relatively ungrammaticalised marking of definiteness) and Swedish (a language with fully developed overt marking of definiteness). The special role of definite attributes, quantifiers and adjectival modifiers is shown through identifying key positions in a linear structure of the Lithuanian NP. A topology of the Lithuanian NP is then suggested reflecting the multi-layered nature of the reference-assigning process mirrored in multi-exponential marking of definiteness, with adjectival marking being a very important one. Variations in NP structures are described using Lithuanian and Swedish data focusing on the combinatorial possibilities of definite adjectival modifiers and other determiners.</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12427 Albertas Steponavičius (1934–2018) 2019-09-17T19:47:32+03:00 Artūras Ratkus arturas.ratkus@flf.vu.lt <p>[tekstas anglų kalba]</p> 2018-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12421 Redakcinė kolegija ir turinys 2019-04-03T19:46:15+03:00 Žurnalas Kalbotyra vigintas.stancelis@kf.vu.lt <p>[tekstas anglų ir lietuvių kalbomis]</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12428 Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data 2019-04-03T19:46:12+03:00 Žurnalas Kalbotyra vigintas.stancelis@kf.vu.lt <p>[text in English and Lithuanian]</p> 2018-12-20T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/11181 A corpus-driven analysis of structural types of lexical bundles in court judgments in English and their translation into Lithuanian 2019-09-17T19:48:35+03:00 Donata Berūkštienė donaber@gmail.com <p>Formulaicity is one of the characteristic features of legal discourse, which manifests itself not only at the level of wording, “but also in the content, structure and layout” of legal texts (Ruusila &amp; Londroos 2016, 123). Formulaic language, which includes phrasal and prepositional verbs, idioms, collocations, lexico-grammatical associations, lexical bundles, etc., are building blocks of legal discourse shaping legal text meanings. However, up to now, far too little attention has been paid to the nature of frequently occurring “sequences of three or more words that show a statistical tendency to co-occur” (Biber &amp; Conrad 1999, 183), i.e. lexical bundles, in different genres of legal texts. Most studies in the field of lexical bundles in legal texts have only been based on one language (e.g. Jablonkai 2009; Goźdź-Roszkowski 2011; Breeze 2013), whereas translation-oriented contrastive studies on lexical bundles are lacking. In respect of the aforementioned gaps, the aim of this pilot study is to analyse structural types of lexical bundles in court judgments of the Court of Justice of the European Union in English and to examine the way these structures are rendered into Lithuanian. To gain insights into the frequency and structure of lexical bundles, the present study uses the methodological guidelines of corpus linguistics. The classification of lexical bundles into structural types is based on the framework suggested by Biber et al. (1999, 2004). For the purpose of this study, a parallel corpus of court judgments was compiled comprising approximately 1 million words of original court judgments in the English language and about 8 hundred thousand words of court judgments translated into Lithuanian. Lexical bundles in this research were identified using the corpus analysis toolkit AntConc 3.4.4 (Anthony 2015). A concordance program AntPConc 1.2.0 (Anthony 2017) was employed to find Lithuanian equivalents of the most frequent lexical bundles identified in the English court judgments. The evidence from this study suggests that different structural types of lexical bundles have more or less regular equivalents in Lithuanian; however, in most cases, these equivalents tend to be shorter.</p> 2017-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2017 Kalbotyra http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/11185 Adverbs as evidentials: an English-Spanish contrastive analysis of twelve adverbs in spoken and newspaper discourse 2019-09-17T19:48:30+03:00 Marta Carretero mcarrete@ucm.es Juana I. Marín-Arrese juana@ucm.es Julia Lavid-López lavid@filol.ucm.es <p>This paper presents a contrastive analysis of six English evidential adverbs ending in -ly with their Spanish nearest translation equivalents, in spoken and newspaper discourse. The adverbs may be associated with varying degrees of reliability: high (clearly/claramente, evidently/evidentemente, obviously/obviamente), medium (apparently/al parecer) and low (seemingly/aparentemente, supposedly/supuestamente). The analysis is based on tokens of authentic language extracted from two contemporary corpora, the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA). The qualitative analysis focuses on the evidential functions of the adverbs and on their pragmatic interactional uses; the quantitative analysis centres on the relative frequency of type of evidential functions and the clausal position of the adverbs.<br /> The results uncover a number of differences between the English adverbs and their Spanish correlates and also between the two discourse types. Practically all the adverbs are strongly specialized in expressing either indirect-inferential or indirect-reportative evidentiality. English obviously and Spanish evidentemente show a high frequency of cases of loss of evidential meaning due to pragmaticalization, specifically in spoken discourse. Regarding position, the English adverbs are more frequent in medial clausal position, while some Spanish adverbs are often found in the more prominent parenthetical position.</p> 2017-12-28T00:00:00+02:00 Autorinės teisės (c) 2017 Kalbotyra