Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum <p>Įkurtas 2010 m. Publikuoja germanų, romanų ir slavų lingvistikos bei edukologijos tyrimų tematikos straipsnius.</p> lt-LT <p>Susipažinkite su autorių teisėmis&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/journalpolicy">žurnalo politikoje</a>&nbsp;skiltyje Autorių teisės.&nbsp;</p> dang3@takas.lt (Danguolė Melnikienė) vigintas.stancelis@kf.vu.lt (Vigintas Stancelis) Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 LES FRANCISMES DANS LES DICTIONNAIRES QUÉBÉCOIS http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11320 <p>Le but de cet article était d’analyser les francismes, relevés dans cinq dictionnaires du français québécois et d’évaluer leur rôle informatif pour les locuteurs du français standard et ceux du français québécois. Le québécisme est un fait de la langue française, propre à sa variété régionale, parlée par les communautés francophones canadiennes au Québec. Elle se distingue du français standard par ses caractéristiques particulières au niveau phonétique, lexical et syntaxique. Le québécisme existe en opposition avec le francisme et le français de France en général. Le francisme (aussi appelé l’hexagonisme) est un fait de la langue française qui comporte les mots d’usage typique du français standard ou autrement, utilisé sur le territoire du Canada. La recherche effectuée nous a permis de constater que le rôle de francisme dans les dictionnaires québécois est celui d’un connecteur ou d’une clé particuliers. En tant qu’un élément du dictionnaire, il peut fournir l’information sur le dictionnaire lui-même, sur son auteur, mais aussi sur les ressources linguistiques utilisées, reflétant l’état de la langue et de ses variantes régionales. Malheureusement, il n’est pas encore défini d’une manière complètement claire et utilisé à son plein potentiel.</p> Julija Kalvelytė, Danguolė Melnikienė Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11320 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 PRAGMATIC POTENTIAL OF THE NOMINATION OF THE SUBJECT-SOURCE OF FEAR (A MONSTROSITY) IN TEXTS OF HORROR DISCOURSE http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11323 <p>The research is aimed at studying the pragmatic potential of nominations of the subject-source of fear (a monstrosity, in particular) in texts of horror discourse in English and Ukrainian. The idea is that the expression of the communicative sense “fear” in a subjectively created world according to an author’s intention is explicated in the nomination of the subject-source of fear (SSF). Generally, any SSF is a monster as far as its attributes and actions are harmful for the recipient of fear (SRF), its essence contradicts the SRF’s world creating norms. Psychologically, a SSF-monstrosity is a metaphor that gives ground to a trend in the horror discourse (J. Hartwell) and preconditions the modus of fear emphasis that lets the reader concentrate his empathy on the SRF, revealing his hidden fears. In psychology this state is called dysmorphophobia, or an obsessive fear of deformities (both own and others). Alogism of SSFs’ reference includes repellent appearance as the feature of external inconsistency with the norms of the SRF’s world: in this sense it borders on the notion of otherness that, revealed to its fullest, may be perceived as horrific. On the other hand, deformities viewed as the features of some other world creation relate to the notion of novelty, and may be understood as not fearful. Both sense variations mentioned above are present in texts of horror discourse and actualize such senses as “fear-disgust”, “fear of the unknown” and “fear of otherness”; their differentiation helps exclude from the analysis tautological notion “fear of fearful”. </p> Yaroslava Sazonova Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11323 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 REDRESSIVE ACTIONS FOLLOWING COMMISERATIONS IN ONLINE DISCUSSIONS http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11327 <p>In Brown and Levinson’s (1978) seminal classification of positive politeness strategies, commiserating is listed in the subgroup referred to as human-relations wants. The qualitative and quantitative ana­lysis of a corpus consisting of five Internet discussion boards has shown that it is also one of the most frequent positive politeness strategies used there. All the threads under examination are dedicated to the so-called women’s topics, such as dieting, pregnancy, infertility or mothering. The members of these close-knit communities formed upon the boards find it necessary to express sympathy in order to enhance each other’s (positive) face and avoid face-threatening acts arising from the sensitive nature of these topics. However, the analysis of the corpus has also revealed that to commiserate merely by saying they are sorry is not enough. The interlocutors find it necessary to add often complex redressi­ve actions to boost the illocutionary force of their statements. Thus the aim of the paper is to explore the formulaic character of commiserations and categorise the numerous redressive actions following them, taking into account their two main functions, i.e. building rapport and facilitating smooth communication within online communities. </p> Petra Trávníková Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11327 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 REPRESENTING POSTFEMINIST FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE CONTEMPORARY MEDIASCAPE: THE DISCURSIVE FUNCTION OF IRONY http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11333 <p>Addressing the interdisciplinary area of language &amp; gender as applied to television and media stu­dies, this article summarises the detailed analysis of some extremely popular contemporary TV series and media. With all their specificities, these significant cultural products share a reinvention of the codes of romance, by representing an up-to-date, somehow fashionable version of the traditional, and traditionally female, genre of romance geared to postfeminist consumer culture. The femininities and sexualities enacted in these cultural narratives may appear to be unsparingly and humorously critical of conventionally female linguistic and cultural stereotypes, and could therefore be regarded as radical feminist embodiments. Nevertheless, by means of an ironic and hyperbolic approach, they are in fact not only romantic and mainstream, but also ideologically biased, preserving a normative heterosexual white middle-class status quo, and restoring a patriarchal value system. A close critical scrutiny thus shows the stylistic and discursive strategies by which feminism has switched to postfemi­nist romance, and has thereby yielded to postfeminist backlash.</p> Daniela Francesca Virdis Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11333 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 TOWARDS AUTONOMY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11335 <p>It is the purpose of this paper to examine some aspects of autonomy in language learning with a specific focus on the transition from high school to the first year at university. This transition can be problematic, in that study at a university level requires a degree of independence and initiative which is not generally required in the supportive learning environment of the school system. <br /> Our starting point is identifying those characteristics which make a good language learner (Naiman et al. 1978; Johnson 2001; Maftoon and Seyyedrezaei 2012) and to demonstrate that these characteristics are largely an innate capacity of some and not all learners. <br /> Among these characteristics there is the ability to establish a systematic and autonomous approach to the learning process on the basis of personal inclinations and individual life-skills (Dublin Descriptors 2005). In this sense the good learner is not a passive participant in the process, but, as Schön (1987) claims, acts as a ‘problem-solver’, able to make decisions and put those decisions into practice. That is to say, learning is ‘the creation of knowledge’ (Kolb 1984). <br /> Finally, an approach to developing learner autonomy is illustrated, based on the personal experience of the author within the context of a first year ESP course in Communication Studies at the University of Cagliari (Italy). The course makes extensive use of the new technologies through a Moodle platform. It will be demonstrated that a blend of traditional teaching and e-learning can provide a ‘bridge’ between school and university, allowing the learner to move within a flexible environment and acquire the skills necessary for successful learning.</p> John Christopher Wade Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11335 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 « JE REGRETTE L’EUROPE AUX ANCIENS PARAPETS » : ANALYSE LINGUISTIQUE ET TRADUCTOLOGIQUE DU POÈME BATEAU IVRE ET SA RECRÉATION BÉLARUSSE http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11336 <p>Le Bateau ivre d’Arthur Rimbaud est considéré comme l’un des textes les plus significatifs de la litté­rature française, un texte montrant « la grandeur et la beauté » de sa langue. C’est aussi, et dans une plus grande mesure, un texte « rebelle » qui défie les règles du bon usage et les normes du bon goût de l’époque à cause de la rupture avec la métaphore romantique, de l’utilisation du lexique des registres opposés, de l’entrechoquement des champs sémantiques semblant incompatibles, etc. <br /> Vu de cette perspective, la traduction en bélarusse d’un texte modèle mais en même temps insolent, écrit, en plus, dans une langue de prestige international comme le français ne peut pas être réduite à un exercice linguistique et littéraire, mais contribue aussi à l’affirmation de la langue d’arrivée. <br /> En nous inspirant des analyses structuralistes et centrées sur le langage, nous proposons une étude linguistique, concernant en particulier, le lexique, la syntaxe et les irrégularités de la combinatoire du texte rimbaldien mais aussi un de ses équivalents bélarusses, en ajoutant ainsi une dimension traduc­tologique et comparativiste à notre démarche.</p> Yauheniya Yakubovich Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11336 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 РОЛЬ РАДИО В ФОРМИРОВАНИИ ITALIANO STANDARD В ПЕРИОД ФАШИСТСКОГО ДВАДЦАТИЛЕТИЯ http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11338 <p>Из-за позднего политического объединения Италии письменно-литературным итальянским языком, сложившимся на основе литературной формы флорентийского наречия тосканского диалекта, вплоть до 50-х гг. XX в. владели только образованные тосканцы и узкая прослойка образованных людей в других регионах. Неграмотные люди знали только свой ди­алект. Распространение радиовещания в Италии в начале 20-х гг. XXв. совпало с периодом фашистской пропаганды, нацеленной на формирование единого итальянского языка, из ко­торого следовало исключить диалектную вариативность и иностранные заимствования. <br /> В статье освещаются основные этапы языковой политики фашистского двадцатилетия – Il Ventennio (1925-1945 гг.) – от толерантного отношения к языковым различиям на тер­ритории Италии к полному их неприятию, а также к регламентированному исключению иностранных слов из итальянского языка. Политические цели – стабилизация внутренних отношений между ведущими политическими группами и народной массой, создание единого сплочённого государства, настроенного против общего врага – способствовали созданию итальянских организаций радиовещания, диктовавших нормы устной речи, которые были закреплены в Справочнике по произношению и орфографии, изданном в 1939 г.. Интересны­ми оказываются причины толерантного отношения к диалектам, проблемы закрепления заимствований в языке и связанные с этим образовательные радиопрограммы периода фа­шизма.</p> Елена Борисова Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11338 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 ТЕЛЕДЕБАТЫ КАК СРЕДСТВО ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ НА АУДИТОРИЮ http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11343 <p>Современная политическая наука рассматривает теледебаты как мощнейший инстру­мент воздействия на избирателя. Практика показывает, что с каждым годом жанр те­ледебатов эволюционирует и наполняется новыми манипулятивными технологиями. Автор статьи полагает, что как специалисту, так и обычному избирателю необходимо научиться декодировать стратегии и тактики, используемые политиками в данном виде речевого взаимодействия с избирателями и уметь противостоять не всегда честным изби­рательным технологиям. Для исследования были выбраны последние президентские дебаты в США, прошедшие в 2016 г. между Д. Трампом и Х. Клинтон. На основе проведенного лин­гвистического анализа аудио и видеоматериала автор выделяет ряд языковых средств до­стижения зрелищности, соревновательности и персонификации политического процесса, являющихся основными характеристиками данного вида политического дискурса. В ста­тье рассматриваются отличия между обычными репликами, комментариями участников, репликами «в зал», простыми наложениями реплик и умышленными прерываниями собесед­ника. Автор подчеркивает как характеристики собственного коммуникативного стиля Клинтон и Трампа, так и универсальные тактики захвата инициативы, удержания роли, «игнорирования» собеседника, выделяет другие способы воздействия как на оппонента, так и на зрителя. Подчеркивается, что записи теледебатов могут послужить прекрасным ра­бочим материалом для студентов международников и политологов, изучающих англий­ский язык для специальных целей.</p> Алексей Тымбай Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11343 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 THE USE OF THEN IN LITHUANIAN LEARNERS’ ENGLISH http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11349 <p>In linguistic literature, learner language has been extensively analysed from various perspectives. A number of studies have reported on the differences between non-native and native learner English. The former has been repeatedly characterised as showing the overuse of the features associated with spoken English (Gilquin and Paquot 2007, 2008; Russell 2014; Yoon 2015). Though in linguistic ana­lysis, due to its polyfunctional nature, ‘then’ has been addressed under a number of various labels, from the quantitative perspective it is reported to be characteristic of spoken English (Biber et al. 1999). The present study, limited to the analysis of non-native language data, aims at determining the roles of language mode and text genre on the use of ‘then’ in the Lithuanian learners’ English. Using quantitative and qualitative approaches three corpora representing the spoken (LINDSEI-LIT) and written (LICLE-VU-LIT and CALE-LIT) English produced by the Lithuanian students were analy­sed. While the results indicate a direct correlation between language mode and the use of ‘then’, the role of genre proved to be less unequivocal.</p> Lina Bikelienė Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11349 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200 INFLUENCE OF VIDEO GAMES ON THE ACQUISITION OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11354 <p>In the past decade or two, there has been an obvious increase in the number of school children profici­ent in English. One of the reasons is the number of English classes per week, but even more important­ly, it is the influence of the media. Students are greatly exposed to video games. In this paper, a survey was conducted in order to find the connection between video-game playing and English proficiency. Ninety six students filled out the survey answering a range of question on the quantity and quality of their video game playing. The conclusion drawn was that video games have a profound impact on language learning. The areas of most benefit were vocabulary and pronunciation. As a form of highly desirable entertainment, video games provide a positive and motivating atmosphere, which is perfect for adopting a foreign language.</p> Domas Rudis, Svetozar Poštić Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Verbum http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/11354 Fri, 19 Jan 2018 16:20:03 +0200