Kalbotyra https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra <p>Įkurtas 1958 m. Publikuoja įvairių kalbų sinchroninius ir diachroninius, taip pat ir tarpkalbinių aspektų, tyrimus.</p> en-US <p>Susipažinkite su autorių teisėmis&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/journalpolicy">žurnalo politikoje</a>&nbsp;skiltyje Autorių teisės.&nbsp;</p> aurelija.usoniene@flf.vu.lt (Aurelija Usonienė) vigintas.stancelis@kf.vu.lt (Vigintas Stancelis) Thu, 12 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Redakcinė kolegija ir turinys https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16548 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16548 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A token-based investigation of verbal plurality in Lithuanian dialects https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16549 <p>This paper examines the use of the verbal suffixes -(d)inė- and ‑dav‑ in Lithuanian dialects. Both suffixes express pluractionality, although of different types, and their distribution in Lithuanian dialects differs as well. Using corpus data, we find that in South Aukštaitian ‑dav‑ is rarer and -(d)inė‑ is more frequent than in East Aukštaitian; in Lithuanian dialects of Belarus -dav- is almost absent. We argue against the assumption that -(d)inėforms have extended into the domain of the past habitual at the expense of ‑dav‑ forms; a slightly higher token frequency of -(d)inė‑ in South Aukštaitian seems to apply irrespective of any particular tense. We also argue that only token-based analyses can substantiate claims concerning areal distribution of certain grammatical forms and constructions.</p> Kirill Kozhanov | Björn Wiemer Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16549 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Referential and pragmatic-discourse properties of Lithuanian reference impersonals: 2sg-imp, 3-imp and ma/ta-imp https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16552 <p>In this paper I describe the semantics, pragmatics and the discourse functions of three Lithuanian agent-defocusing constructions, featuring the non-referential use of second person singular/third person verbal forms and the non-agreeing participial forms in ma/ta. These three constructions can all be defined as impersonal, in the broader sense of the word, as the agent (or the main participant, whatever its semantic role may be) is constructed as non-referential: I label them 2sg-imp, 3-imp and ma/ta-imp. My corpus consists of original Lithuanian texts (a short story and entries on an Internet forum) and of the Lithuanian translations of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s novella Le Petit Prince and J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. My analysis shows that 2sg-imp are preferably used to express generic agents (anyone) and 3-imp are preferably used to express referential indefinite agents (someone). while ma/ta-imp are referentially flexible. 2sg-imp are pragmatically marked in that they are used to express empathy between the speaker and the pool of potential referents; they are mostly used in specific discourse types, such as opinion statements and life drama situations. 3-imp are preferred in situations where the indefiniteness of the agent is relevant to the development of the narrative; ma/ta-imp are instead preferred when the agent is irrelevant, and the focus is on the event itself. The behavior of Lithuanian 2sg-imp, 3-imp and ma/ta-imp is consistent with the one already described for similar constructions in other European languages.</p> Lidia Federica Mazzitelli Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16552 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Juk and gi, and “particles” in contemporary Lithuanian: Explaining language-particular elements in a cross-linguistic context https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16553 <p>In this paper, I propose to take a fresh look at the elements traditionally termed “particles” in descriptions of Lithuanian. I establish criteria that would allow one to come up with a meaningful classification of such elements, and argue for the descriptive language particular category of “sentence particles”. I then turn to the syntax and functions of juk and gi, two prominent elements of this category. In order to understand their functions better, I invoke cross-linguistic comparison. I demonstrate that the ideas expressed in the literature on the German particles doch and ja can also be applied to Lithuanian. All four particles exhibit a common meaning component, which I describe as framing the proposition as uncontroversial, but also significant differences. Finally, I provide a brief overview of similar categories in some neighboring and genealogically related languages, and introduce the general methodological and areal-typological dimension of the phenomenon.</p> Vladimir Panov Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16553 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Pietų aukštaičių patarmės paribiai: sintaksinių konstrukcijų kaita https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16554 <p>Straipsnyje tiriami dialektologiniai ir sociolingvistiniai duomenys, surinkti XX a. antrojoje pusėje. Analizuojama paskutiniųjų pietų aukštaičių patarmės atstovų, gyvenusių Šalčininkų rajono apylinkėse, kalba. Pagrindinis šio sinchroninio tyrimo tikslas – atskleisti tiriamojoje teritorijoje, kurioje buvo ir tebėra vartojama ne vien lietuvių kalba, sintaksinių konstrukcijų kaitą: apibūdinti prielinksninių konstrukcijų atsiradimo vietoj linksnio atvejus, nustatyti galimas šio reiškinio plitimo priežastis. Darbe remiamasi Vytauto Ambrazo (2006) šia tema išdėstytais apibendrinimais.<br>XX a. antrojoje pusėje Šalčininkų rajono apylinkių lietuvių šnektos atstovai gyveno aktyvių kontaktų zonoje. Respondentai nuo seno gerai mokėjo ir aktyviai vartojo kelias kalbas: lietuvių šnektą (priklauso pietų aukštaičių patarmei), vietinės baltarusių tarmės variantą, vadinamą poprostu (‘paprastąją kalbą’), vietinį lenkų kalbos variantą ir rusų kalbą. Pokalbių metu visos šios kalbos buvo natūraliai kaitaliojamos tarpusavyje – vyko aktyvi kodų kaita. Dėl ilgalaikių kontaktų su slavų kalbomis Šalčininkų apylinkių lietuvių šnektoje ėmė formuotis ir plisti nauji kalbos reiškiniai.<br>Šiame straipsnyje siekiama išanalizuoti laipsnišką naujų sintaksinių konstrukcijų plitimą. Aiškinamasi, kaip ir kodėl šios konstrukcijos įsitvirtina lietuvių šnektoje. Tyrime konstatuojama, kad tiriamojoje lietuvių šnektoje dažnai vartojami prielinksniai – ant, dėl, į, po – junginyje su linksniu įgauna naujų reikšmių. Daugelis tų reikšmių yra atsiradusios kaimynų slavų kalbų pavyzdžiu, todėl lietuvių kalbai dažnai yra svetimos. Intensyvių kontaktų sąlygomis skatinamąjį vaidmenį čia atliko vietinė baltarusių tarmė. Prielinksninės konstrukcijos dar nėra visiškai išstūmusios tiriamajai lietuvių šnektai būdingų atitinkamų neprielinksninių. Jos čia įsitvirtinę ne vietoj grynųjų linksnių, o greta jų. Tiriamos lietuvių šnektos sintaksės kaitą skatina ir bendrinė lietuvių kalba.</p> Nijolė Tuomienė Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16554 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Intercultural Perspectives on Research Writing, Pilar Mur-Dueñas, Jolanta Šinkūnienė, eds. John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia (2018) https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16555 <p>Intercultural Perspectives on Research Writing, Pilar Mur-Dueñas, Jolanta Šinkūnienė, eds. John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia (2018). VII + 310 pp., ISBN 9789027201973.</p> Mirna Varga Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16555 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Feste Wortverbindungen in Forschung und Lehre: Phraseologismen, Kollokationen und Verwandtes. In Erinnerung an Saulius Lapinskas (1954–2014). Internationale wissenschaftliche Tagung an der Universität Vilnius https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16557 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Justina Daunorienė Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16557 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 In memoriam. Aurelija Mickūnaitė Griškevičienė (1971–2019) https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16558 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16558 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Nurodymai autoriams ir bibliografiniai duomenys https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16559 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Autorių teisių (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/16559 Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Corpus of Lithuanian Children Language: Development and application for modern studies in language acquisition https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12422 <p>[full article and abstract in English]</p> <p>This paper describes The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language and its possible applications for modern studies on the first language acquisition. First of all, the procedure of data collection for the Corpus is discussed. Furthermore, the main methodological principles of longitudinal and experimental data compilation and transciption are decribed. Finally, different studies in developmental psycholinguistics which have been carried out so far and which demonstrate possible ways of the application of the Corpus data for different scientific purposes are introduced.</p> <p>The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language developed at Vytautas Magnus University comprises typical and atypical, longitudinal and experimental data of the Lithuanian language development. The Corpus was compiled using different methodological approaches, such as natural observation and semi-experiment. The longitudinal data (conversations between the target children and their caretakers) compiled according to the requirement of natural observation includes transcribed and morphologically annotated speech of two typically-developing children, one late talker, one early talker, one child from a low SES family, and a pair of twins. The data was collected during the period of 1993–2017 and and it can be divided into three cohorts. The semi-experimentaldata (~ 124 hours) comes from numerous studies in narratives and spontaneous dialogues elicited from typically-developing and language-impaired monolingual and bilingual (pre-) school age children.</p> <p>From the very beginning of data collection for the The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, studies in the develomental changes of typical child language have been carried out. Over the past decade, these studies have been supplemented by statistical analysis of elicited semi-experimental data; the majority of these studies deal with typical vs. atypical (delayed or impaired) language acquisition and with differences between acquision of Lithuanian in a monolingual vs. bi-/polylingual settings.</p> <p>The paper provides an overview of data of The Corpus of Lithuanian Children’s Language, which have been collected from 1993 but still needed to be structurized according to the employed methodology of data compilation and possible applications for different scientific purposes.</p> Ingrida Balčiūnienė | Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė Autorių teisių (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/kalbotyra/article/view/12422 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000