Knygotyra
Knygotyra
Download

Knygotyra ISSN 0204–2061 eISSN 2345-0053
2019, vol. 73, pp. 289–319 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15388/Knygotyra.2019.73.41

An Archivist and a Records Manager: Professional Education in Ukraine (Case Study of the National Aviation University)

Iryna Tiurmenko
National Aviation University
1 Kosmonavta Komarova Ave., Kyiv, Ukraine
email:
tira@nau.edu.ua

Liudmyla Bozhuk
National Aviation University
1 Kosmonavta Komarova Ave., Kyiv, Ukraine
email:
bozhedaj@ukr.net

Summary. A higher education reform in Ukraine, and the emergence of the new integrated program “Information, Library and Archival Studies” instead of “Records Management and Information Activity” in the educational space in particular, brought about various interpretations and sharp discussions. In general, the university community met these innovations without enthusiasm. The scientific thought of Ukrainian scholars on how to develop archival education in Ukraine was generally based on the tradition enshrined in the complex of the developed academic disciplines and tested in practice in conditions of intense competition among students.

The approach of the Department of History and Records Management of the National Aviation University to modern training of the archivist was prompted by the needs of the labor market and the challenges of the digital society.1 It consists of finding ways to train modern specialists who possess interdisciplinary competences in the field of archival studies, records management, information activity, and socio-communicative sciences. This led to a study aimed at finding an up-to-date profile of a records manager/archivist.

The research analyzes the approaches to the education of archivists in Ukraine at various stages of its socio-economic development and summarizes the current experience of the National Aviation University in this sphere.

Keywords: archival science, study program 029 “Information, Library and Archival Studies,” competent specialist, Higher Education Institutions of Ukraine, National Aviation University (NAU).

Archyvistas ir įrašų saugotojas: profesinis išsilavinimas Ukrainoje (Nacionalinio aviacijos universiteto tyrimas)

Santrauka. Aukštojo mokslo reforma Ukrainoje, ypač naujos integruotosios specialybės „Informacija, bibliotekininkystė ir archyvistika“ atsiradimas vietoje senosios „Įrašų saugojimas ir informacinė veikla“, sukėlė nemažai interpretacijų ir pažadino aštrią diskusiją. Apskritai kalbant, akademinė bendruomenė šias inovacijas pasitiko be entuziazmo. Ukrainos mokslininkų mintis, susijusi su tuo, kaip šalyje reikėtų plėtoti archyvinį išsilavinimą, buvo daugiausia paremta kompleksine įvairių akademinių disciplinų tradicija ir praktiškai išbandyta intensyvios konkurencijos tarp studentų sąlygomis.

Moderni Nacionalinio aviacijos universiteto Istorijos ir įrašų saugojimo katedros prieiga prie archyvistų išsilavinimo buvo nulemta darbo rinkos poreikių ir skaitmeninės visuomenės iššūkių. Ši prieiga ieško būdų ugdyti šiuolaikinius archyvistus, kurie turėtų tarpdisciplininių kompetencijų archyvistikos, įrašų saugojimo, informacinės veiklos ir socialinės komunikacijos mokslų srityse. Tai paskatino tyrimą, kuriuo siekiama surasti akademinį šiuolaikinius standartus atitinkančio įrašų saugotojo / archyvisto profilį.

Straipsnyje tiriamos prieigos prie archyvistikos išsilavinimo Ukrainoje įvairiais jos socialinio ekonominio vystymosi etapais ir apibendrina esamą Nacionalinio aviacijos universiteto patirtį šioje srityje.

Reikšminiai žodžiai: archyvistika, specialybė 029 „Informacija, bibliotekininkystė ir archyvistika“, kompetencija, Ukrainos aukštojo mokslo institucijos, Nacionalinis aviacijos universitetas (NAU).

Received: 2/12/2018. Accepted: 20/9/2019
Copyright © 2019
Iryna Tiurmenko, Liudmyla Bozhuk. Published by Vilnius University Press. This is an Open Access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Introduction

The information age, along with its digital transformations, brought about radical changes in all spheres of public life. The restructuring of the society first of all affected educational institutions in general and higher educational institutions in particular. The increase in flows and volumes of information brought about the emergence of new professions, the introduction of changes into the training process of specialists in the established professions, and the implementation of new forms of training and the formation of graduates’ competences that would meet not only the requirements of the present but would also be aimed at overcoming the challenges of the future.

The changes also affected the archivist’s profession. First of all, they were caused by the emergence of new media that required knowledge and skills needed to process digital documents, the ability to manage information processes, work with innovative technologies, develop partnerships, work in teams, etc. Such problems arose in developed countries already in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. At present, they still remain urgent in Ukraine.

Since the beginning of the higher education reform in 2015, pursuant to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Approval of the List of Fields of Knowledge and Specialties under which Higher Education Institutions are Prepared” (April 29, 2015), classical archival studies and the study program “Records Management and Information Activity” were combined with library studies, giving rise to a new program called “Information, Library and Archival Studies,” which became an integral part of the culture and art industry.

Purpose Statement and Research Methodology

To determine the purpose and tasks of the study, the verification of the data obtained and the objectivity of the results and conclusions, the following methods were used: collection of information, its analysis, and, on this basis, the formation of the model of records manager/archivist training at the National Aviation University (NAU).

The study was based on a comparative approach, determined by the need to study the ideas and views on archival education in the leading countries of the world, in particular Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, and Canada, including the post-Soviet countries, especially Russia and Ukraine. It is a well-known fact that the French experience of training archivists at the National Charter School2 has gained world recognition after 1808, when Napoleon allocated the Hôtel de Soubise to the National Archives, which comprised the documents of the old and new regimes; their distinguishing feature was free public access.3 More specifically, the National Archives of France (Archives de France) organized an international technical internship (training course) of the Archives (STIA) in 1951. The joint author of the research, Iryna Tiurmenko, attended this training course in 2014. This made it possible to further explore the experience of organizing archival studies and archival education in Francophone countries that are active participants in STIA.

The archival training systems at the University of Hradec Králové (Czech Republic) and the Russian Humanitarian University (Russia), which the Department of History and Records Management of the NAU collaborates, were important for the study. The experience of these countries and the ideas of foreign scholars regarding the application of the interdisciplinary approach were the basis for the development of a professional education model for an archivist/records manager at the NAU. That is why the experience of archival education in these countries was taken as the basis for comparative analysis.

At the same time, it should be noted that interdisciplinarity is not a universal approach in the formation of a specialist-training model. Each country chooses its own paradigm for the development of professional education, which focuses on national traditions, challenges of globalization, technological innovations, and labor market demands. Obviously, the problem of the comparative analysis of training models in different countries is relevant and needs more thorough and specific research.

Consequently, the study of educational programs for records managers/archivists in Ukraine necessitated the use of data collection methods, namely the monitoring method, which made it possible to study educational programs and their content in the universities of Ukraine, where specialists are trained in the specified specialty. It also allowed to track the career trajectory of NAU graduates. The analysis and synthesis methods helped to gain a holistic view of the system of practical professional training in leading higher education institutions; the method of generalization allowed to determine the variability of the professional qualifications of the “Information, Library and Archival Studies” specialists; the forecasting method made it possible to determine the content of the records managers/archivists training, taking into account the needs of archival institutions in the specialists of this level and the requirements of the digital society.

Thus, the goal of the research is to develop a model for the training of a records manager/archivist at the NAU, which determines the development of the necessary competences for the future employees of the archival sphere.

Overview on the Essence of Professional Education in Scientific Literature

We will consider the evolution of views on the principles of archival education in order to develop a model for archivist training in the NAU based on foreign experience, the national educational tradition, and the requirements of the present.

The issues of archival education were the focus of many countries in the late 1990s. A rapid informatization of society and the appearance of the digital document prompted scholars and archivists-practitioners to decide on the strategic directions of archival education and the competences that will be required of archivists in the future. The scientific papers written by French-speaking scholars and archivists-practitioners with particular attention on the competence of the archivist of the future and the challenges that they will face in 10–15 years’ time, as well as the views of Ukrainian researchers who are looking for ways to develop professional archival education in Ukraine under the conditions of higher education reform, served as the basis for this research.

Consequently, according to the subject area of the study, we turn to those works which define innovative approaches to professional competences under the conditions of the development of information society, and, therefore, new requirements for the content of archival education. Thus, Maria Pia Rinaldi Mariani first used the term cyberarchivist in 1999, which was picked up by American archivists in 2001.4 Under the slogan of new requirements for the profession of an archivist, Jean-Daniel Zeller5 presented in 2004 a multi-layered model of the archivist’s profile and their knowledge and skills at various levels of working with documents, emphasizing the importance of simultaneous assimilation of relevant computer competences. The researcher defined the essence of the term “cyber-archivist,” who, unlike an “e-archivist,” is capable of developing and controlling operational and management systems, providing long-term storage of digital documents, conducting dialogue in social networks, promoting and distributing documents on the Internet, etc. In J. D. Zeller’s opinion, “e-archivists” are those who carry out their duties via the Internet or social networks, promulging and distributing documents on the Internet, etc. In J. D. Zeller’s opinion, the use of the term “e-archivist” is a tribute to a certain kind of fashion, since such a specialist carries out their activities through the Internet and on social networks, etc.6

Ample debates could be found in the pages of professional scientific publications and scientific conferences from the second decade of the twenty-first century. They were joined by university lecturers, archivists-practitioners, researchers from different countries, who actively discussed the urgent problems of training the archivists of the future. In particular, under the supervision of Paul Servais and Françoise Mirguet at the Catholic University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain) in Canada, the two-volume scientific work Archvistes de 2030. Réflexions prospectives (“Archivists of 2030. Perspective Analysis”)7 and Archivists in 15 Years’ Time. New Expectations, New Responsibilities, New Challenges (Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia, 2016) were published. The latest edition is an attempt to answer four important questions that the archivists are currently facing: namely, the archivist’s place in the modern world; the new qualities, duties, and responsibilities of the archivist; the definition of new requirements for archival education in the future; the identification of problems that archivists will face in 15-years’ time.8

Issues related to the future professional training of archivists were considered in the work of Sébastien Soyez, the archivist of the Belgian State Archives, titled Défis et mutations: nouvelles compétences indispensables dans la formation archivistique belge (“Challenges and Changes: New Competences Required for Belgian Archival Education”).9 The author, among other things, analyzed the signs of change and their causes by identifying four groups of the basic courses that should be included in modern archival education, taking into account the national specificities: academic disciplines related to the management of archives, the theory and practice of archival affairs, diplomacy, and paleography; historical disciplines that make it possible to better understand the conditions for the formation of archival collections, namely: academic disciplines studying the history of institutions and organizations, society, politics, economics, the history of law and the arts, and archeology; academic disciplines related to computer sciences; other cognate disciplines: philology, literature, law, etc.

Meanwhile, S. Soyez underlines that after the implementation of new technologies, archival education is increasingly undergoing integration into computer science, management, project management, digital documents and databases, and that interdisciplinarity should therefore be the basis for the education of a future-oriented archivist. S. Soyez identified the following important competences: an understanding of technical and sociocultural issues (legal, organizational) related to the functioning of the digital space and information management in a digital society; understanding the role of an information professional in managing digital information; the ability to cooperate with representatives of other professional groups for making the best decisions in the process of digital information management; an active participation in projects on managing digital information within institutions and organizations and in developing mechanisms and policies for managing digital information. Therefore, the researcher sums up, it is important to modernize archival education in such a way that it would form a new generation of archivists, offering them not only modern, attractive educational programs, but also a system of continuous professional education.10

Multidisciplinarity as the preeminence of training archivists of the future was the keynote in the cooperative work of Mari Demoulin, an Associate Professor at the School of Library and Information Science (Université de Montréal), and abovementioned archivist Sébastien Soyez.11 As we see, traditional classical archival education corresponds to the modern requirements of the digital society, acquires new forms, and increasingly leans toward the information and communicative sciences.

The approach to professional archival education in some Russian universities, and at the Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University in particular, is described in a paper authored by Alexandra Makarova. However, it should be noted that this approach is more closely related to the classical model laid down at the Moscow Historical Archival Institute (now the Russian State University for the Humanities), somewhat modernized under the influence of changes brought by the information society. A. Makarova summarizes the blocks of educational disciplines, which, still, do not determine the distinction between the Russian archival training system and the French one, and focuses on the correlation between the levels of university education in the two countries.12 The rate of social change, partly evoked by “information burst”, changed the views on the professional education at the Russian State University for the Humanities. It should be noted that at present, the specialization of educational programs in these HEIs underwent simultaneous changes with structural transformations in the Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH), which established the Faculty of Records Management and Technotron Archives, while the Department of Records Management was reformed into the Department of Records Management, Audiovisual, and Scientific-and-Technical Archives, focusing on a wider training of professionals, with the involvement of the archival component (we would like to note that a separate Faculty of Archival Affairs operates in the structure of the RSUH).13

Archival education in the Czech Republic is also being transformed. It is directed toward fast-flowing technological changes. The training programs, based on the principle of multidisciplinarity, are being actively implemented in the Czech Republic. In this regard, Petr Grulich14 determined the meaning of the term cyberarchivist and outlined the archivists’ training system according to the all-in-one education program at the Second International Scientific Conference “Historical and Cultural Heritage: Preservation, Access, Use” (Kyiv, November 23–24, 2017), organized by the Department of History and Records Management of the National Aviation University. Thus, the all-in-one program includes three blocks of discipline: (1) archival science, history, and auxiliary sciences of history; (2) computer studies (data basis, computer graphics, operation systems); (3) related disciplines (special attention is given to studying foreign languages). This system is applied to training archivists in the universities of Prague, Brno, and Hradec Králové,15 while students are able to work within the sphere of archival affairs as well as state authorities.

A special feature of archival education in Ukraine was the fact that up to the 1990s, the training of archivists took place in the classical universities. The gaining of independence in 1991 gave the impetus to modernizing education; new specialties arose, in terms of which the training of professionals who were able to work in the archival sphere was conducted. The study program “Records Management and Information Activity” became such a multidisciplinary specialty that it began to be actively introduced in Ukraine since the mid-1990s and early 2000s. An analysis of publications testifies to the fact that the appearance of a new specialty has drawn the attention of scientists primarily to the practical issues of records management education. From this perspective, a summarizing scientific paper written by Valentina Bezdrabko16 is worth of notice. The researcher displayed a complex approach toward the formation and development of records management education in Ukraine over a period of 15 years, defined its specificity and difference as opposed to training professionals in bibliography and library science, analyzed the evolution of curricular content, outlined the role of the State Standard of Higher Education of Ukraine in the specialty specified (2004). She emphasized his role in the development of qualitatively new curricular and, hence, professionals training content, and proved the importance of the accurate definition of the professiology of a records manager.

From 2005 the research in records management education is introduced through a wide range of directions: from theoretical studies to the practical realization of the educational and professional concept of a records manager’s profile in the institutions of higher education of Ukraine. Let us consider some of them for a better understanding of the approximate topics of publications as well as issues being urgent for the practical training of professionals within the field.

Thus, Nataliya Belikova and Nataliya Zozulia represented a theoretical profile of records manager professional education that is based on such principles as humanization and humanitarization, fundamentalization and multidisciplinarity, multiscientificity, as well as the intellectualization and continuity of education.17 The search for optimal ways of records management and the practical training of information activity professionals was defined in the series of works of higher educational institutions professionals in the corresponding specialties. In particular, Yurii Shcherblyak18 distinguished the main blocks of academic disciplines important for training managers of information technologies in the Ternopil National Economic University, namely professionals in the spheres of management, records management, the humanities and linguistics, computers and technology, jurisprudence, information, and analytics; Heorhiy Sprinsian19 indicated the necessity to use the principles of proactive education and a systemic approach while training records managers in the Odessa National Polytechnic University; the experience of records managers training in terms of a competence-based approach in the National Aviation University was analyzed by Svitlana Lytvyns’ka20 та Iryna Tiurmenko.21 The abovementioned publications give us grounds to state that no universal approach was introduced to train professionals in the study program “Records Management and Information Activity” in spite of the existence of the State Standard specified above. Every higher educational institution, in view of the regional needs of the labor market, had its own conceptual model of a records manager profile, which was realized due to the elective part of the curriculum.

Despite a great number of scientific publications, the issues of providing records managers with practical training for working in archival institutions were almost not analyzed in scientific literature. The move away from the general trend is presented in the publication by scientific practical archivist Ludmyla Palamarkhuk.22 In particular, the researcher pointed out the priority competences of training specialists within the specialty “Records Management and Information Activity”: the capability of creating digital documents in different formats, providing their authenticity and integrity, organizing electronic docflow, and archiving and submitting electronic documents for archival storage. She paid special attention to the modernization of professional education through introducing special courses in electronic docflow and information technologies, involving experienced archivists-practitioners and electronic docflow designers to teach in the higher educational institutions, organizing internships for students in archives and state authorities where electronic docflow is implemented, as well as organizing a career development and internship system for teachers of higher educational institutions.23

The concept of the formation of a professional within the specialty “Records Management and Information Activity” changed drastically after the year 2015. At that time, pursuant to the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Approval of the Lists of Fields of Expertise and Specialties, according to which the Training of Candidates for Higher Education is carried out,”24 “Records Management and Information Activity” became part of a new study program – “Information, Library and Archival Studies.” It provoked lively discussions among the academic community; hence, the draft of the National Standard strengthened the information content of the updated program. We do not claim to give a profound analysis of the literature on this issue; still, the key publications should be noted for understanding the starting point in determination of the practical needs of a records manager/archivist’s professional education.

Ukrainian researchers, in their search for optimal models of training specialists in the field of records management/archival studies, turned to domestic and global experience. Iryna Matiash25 contributed to the understanding of the ways of development of archival studies in Ukraine. Having analyzed the history of archival affairs, which is being formed in the USA, researcher Larysa Levchenko demonstrated professional training formation stages in the universities and colleges and defined the components of postgraduate archival education.26 Maryna Paliienko27 conducted a comparative analysis of archivists training national models in Austria, Canada, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, the USA, the Czech Republic, and France.

The scientific publication of Valentyna Bezdrabko is to be noted. The author speculated about the future of the study program “Records Management and Information Activity” based on the analysis of the National Draft Standard on the program “Information, Library and Archival Studies.” The researcher, in particular, emphasized the incorrectness of the program title, the vagueness of the matter of archival education promoted by the higher technical educational institutions for pragmatic purposes, and the informative degree program itself, which is based on the information theory, where archival science and library science are turned into a formal addition.28 V. Bezdrabko pointed out the necessity of compiling such study programs that would be based on historic-archival, documentary, communicative, as well as technological components that would allow archival education to be modernized.29 Indeed, the synergy of the modern knowledge society leads to the formation of interdisciplinary competences in the system of archival education; therefore, the role of the informational component in training specialists is undervalued.

We agree with the researcher’s opinion concerning the incorrect name of the specialty, but we note the difference in that information activity was transformed illegitimately into an information affair (leave as is), which resulted in the loss of the main component of data processing – the active role of a person in the creation, reception, preservation, dissemination, and accumulation of information. One cannot agree with Valentyna Bezdrabko in defining the influence of the Canadian school of Library and Information Sciences of the University of Montreal (École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information) and the North American model of archival education in general on the developers of the Ukrainian Draft Standard of the new program.30 It is useful to highlight in this regard that the School of Library and Information Sciences of the University of Montreal has certified bachelor’s degree programs in archival sciences (since 1983) and digital information management (since 2011) and that it has been part of the international consortium of Schools since 2016, offering training programs in information sciences at the level of a Master’s degree.31 We will consider some academic disciplines studied by students-archivists: introduction to archival sciences; typology of archives; archive description; estimation and selection of documents, spreading, communication, and use of archival documents; digital archives management; archives and society; non-textual archives; audiovisual archives; legal fundamentals of archival sciences, etc.32 It should be noted that archival sciences-orientated disciplines are an integral component in training professionals in digital information management in the School specified above. However, these disciplines are not taught at all the universities of Ukraine that provide training programs for archivists. Consequently, the experience of the Canadian School should not be rejected but approached along with the European or Ukrainian archival tradition. On the contrary, the approaches of the abovementioned School to training an up-to-date professional in archival or information sciences under the conditions of digital transformations should be taught in great detail and used taking into account Ukrainian realia.

Therefore, the analyzed literature gives evidence of the uncertain character of the approaches to records management/archival education in Ukraine. The practical experience of national higher educational institutions needs to be analyzed in order to determine the optimal model of records management/archival training in a digital society. This .

Legal Basis of Training Professionals in the Study Program 029 “Information, Library and Archival Studies”

The main idea of the concept of higher education at the current stage of development of the Ukrainian state is the training of skilled workers of the appropriate level and profile who could be competitive in the labor market, competent, responsible, proficient in their profession and well-informed in related fields of activity, capable of matching international standards of their specialties, ready for constant professional growth, and are socially and professionally mobile.

The basis for the current system of professional training of future specialists in the program 029 “Information, Library and Archival Studies” is supported by the main provisions of the “National Doctrine of Education Development,”33 Laws of Ukraine “On Education”34 and “On Higher Education”35 (current revision as of 28/09/2017), Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Approval of the National Qualifications Framework,”36 “On Approval of the List of Fields of Knowledge and Specialties under which Higher Education Institutions are Prepared,”37 the Draft Standard of the Second Higher Education Level specialty 029 “Informational, Legal Behavioral and Archival Studies,”38 and other normative legal documents regulating the organization and functioning of the informational, library, and archival activity in Ukraine in the long-term, taking into account any relevant and further development of the field.

Since the introduction of the specialty “Information, Library and Archival Affairs,” Higher Education Institutions (hereinafter – HEIs), which plan to effectuate training by the newly created specialty, should ensure the equal development of all its components – information specialists, librarians, and archivists. Therefore, the draft standard of the second level of higher education in the study program “Information, Library and Archival Studies” of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine implies the integral competence of a graduate of the specialty, namely: “The ability to solve complex problems in the information, library and archival affairs or in the educative process that involves research and/or innovation and is characterized by uncertainty of the conditions and requirements.”39

The abovementioned draft Standard made an attempt to summarize the professions of an archivist, a librarian, and a specialist in information activities within the framework of one specialty. It implies the general slant of the Ukrainian HEIs toward the information component in preparation for a new specialty.

The emergence of a new specialty is the result of the genesis of documentary education, which is currently taking place in the context of radical changes in the sociocultural, information, and technological development of the Ukrainian society. The increasing number of HEIs that train specialists for a new specialty is stipulated by the urgent need to prepare both the managers of modern documentation, including the digital documentation, the managers of state authorities and administration, and the managers of business structures, document-and-information systems, and resources who are competent in the field of information and communication activities, as well as records managers/archivists and library workers – the researchers and custodians of the national historical and cultural heritage.

Variativity of Approaches in Training Specialists through the Program “Informational, Library and Archival Studies” at Higher Education Institutions

At present, 38 specialized institutions of higher education of different types (universal, branch, technical, humanitarian), of different forms of ownership (state and private), are training specialists based on the study program “Information, Library and Archival Studies” in Ukraine. Five of the universities out of the total number are classical ones, 10 of them are technical HEIs, and the rest have a humanities profile. In particular, in Kyiv, the training of specialists based on the study program “Information, Library and Archival Affairs” is carried out by 12 institutions of higher education.40

Therefore, we have grounds to acknowledge the discrepancy in the approaches of the HEIs to the professional training of future specialists in the specialty “Information, Library and Archival Studies” in Ukraine. Such a variability is not accidental, and it is explained by the fact that the new specialty was formed on the basis of the specialty “Records Management and Information Activity”. Although the formation of the specialty was carried out on the basis of the library science, the training institutions of different fields subsequently also started to train specialists in the field of information and records management, which correspondingly resulted in the specifics of specialists training in document science in Ukraine. Each HEI took into account the profile of its educational institution and, to a certain extent, the “fashion on the profession,” which was reflected in awarding appropriate qualifications.41

Therefore, among the approaches of Ukraines HEIs toward the professional training of future specialists in the integrated specialty “Information, Library and Archival Studies,” it is possible to single out a number of the key ones. The first approach to the process of specialistsprofessional training is based on the development of the information component of the specialty “Book Keeping, Library Studies and Bibliography,” carried out by institutions of higher education and culture (the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts,42 National Academy of Culture and Arts Management,43 Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,44
Ukrainian Academy of Printing,
45 Kharkiv State Academy of Culture).46 Most of these educational institutions, taking into account the fundamental changes taking place in the information environment – the creation of an information system and network space and their influence on the processes in educational and scientific spheres, took a course to train specialists in “Information and Library and Books Management,” “Information and Library Management,” “Library and Information Studies.”

The Department of Documentary Communications and Library Studies at Rivne State University of Humanities is distinguished from educational institutions as it trains specialists in information, library, and archival affairs by granting a Master’s educational degree in the specialty “Book Science, Library Science and Bibliography,” thus awarding the qualifications “Master of Culture,” “Librarian and Bibliographer,” and “Teacher of Book Science, Library Science and Bibliography”; successful graduates of the study program “Records Management and Information Activity” are given the qualification “Records Manager, Records Management and Information Activity Lecturer.”47 Masters of “Scientometrics, Bibliometry, Information Management of Library and Information Activity and Archival Affairs” are prepared by the Department of Library Science and Informology at Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University.48

The second approach is applied by the classical universities that previously trained archivists and archaeologists under the curriculum of historical specialties. Therefore, among the educational disciplines that are taught at such HEIs, normative and professionally oriented courses designed to provide the appropriate level of theoretical and practical training of historians-archivists come to the forefront, among them “Archival Studies,” “Theory and Methods of Archival Affairs,” “Historical Source Studies,” “Management of Archival Affairs,” etc. In particular, starting from the 2018–2019 academic year, the Department of Archival Studies and the special branches of historical science of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv began the training of specialists in the new course “Information, Library and Archival Studies.”49 Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University is distinguished from these institutions as it prepares within this specialty graduates for the educational program “Document Support of Management and Information-Analytical Activity,” which is oriented at museum studies and the study of monuments.50 However, the vast majority of Ukrainian universities tend to the traditional, classical historical-archival education, which was formed earlier, by preparing specialists in the course “Archival Studies” within study program 032 “History and Archeology.”

The third approach distinguished itself primarily in technical HEIs, which, on the basis of the profile of educational institutions and in taking into account the requirements of time and the development of information and communication technologies in the era of the information society, focused on training specialists in the course “Information, Library and Archival Studies” based on the study program “Records Management and Information Activity.” The modernization of the content of curricula and syllabi in these HEIs was carried out with the focus on training specialists in records management and information-and-analytical activities who possess professional competences and skills in managing document processes, information, and all kinds of information-related activities in document and information systems (archival, library, managerial ones), the use of modern information and communication technologies for the purpose of creating and managing information retrieval systems, digital archives, digital libraries, and data banks.

The Lviv Polytechnic National University51 and Odessa National Polytechnic University52 provide an example of such a direction. The training of specialists at the Master’s level in the specialty “Information, Library and Archival Studies” is based on the teaching of academic disciplines of three directions: information technologies and databases, communications and PR, information networks and forums. The information-and-analytical, managerial, and records management units are the most substantial ones. The National University “Ostroh Academy” has also chosen the aforementioned direction. The graduates of their study program “Master of Science in Records Management and Information Science” are granted the titles of “Manager of Advertising and PR-activities,” “Records Manager,” “Desk Officer,” and “Information Analyst.”53

Attempts to combine the theoretical and practical aspects of archival affairs with the cycles of academic disciplines of the fundamental and professionally-oriented direction (information management, information resource management, information and analytical activity, public relations in public administration, etc.) are demonstrated by the Department of Social Sciences, Information and Archives of the Central Ukrainian National Technical University54 and the Department of Records Management and Information Activity of the National Metallurgical Academy.55

We focus on the historically-oriented academic disciplines that are in the list of academic disciplines for training information activity specialists, specialists on management of information and documentation processes in the organization, institution and society, and information analysts. This list of historically-oriented academic disciplines embraces archival science, museum studies, source studies, discipline-specific and so-called auxiliary historical disciplines (numismatics, sphragistics), etc. The list of disciplines taught by the departments convincingly testifies to the application of an integrated approach in preparing a universal specialist – a records manager, manager, or information systems analyst.

TABLE 1. The variability of training specialists through the study program 029 “Information, Library and Archival Studies” in the leading higher educational institutions of Ukraine.

Leading institutions of higher education

Area of specialization /Educational program

Classical Universities

Vasyl' Stus Donetsk National University

EP “Records Management and Information activity”

Zaporizhzhia National University

Does not train specialists under a Master’s program;

EP “Records Management and Information Activity” as a Bachelor’s degree

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

EPArchival Studies”

Ivan Franko Lviv State University

EP “Information, Library and Archival Studies”

Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European

National University

EP “Information Analytics and Administration of Control Systems”

Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National Pedagogical University

EP “Information Activity”

Technical Universities

Lviv Polytechnic National University

EP “Information Management”; “Libraries and Archives Management”

National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine

EP “Records Management and Information Activity”

Odessa National Polytechnic University

EP “Records Management and Information Activity”

Ternopil National Economic University

EP “Records Management and Information Activity”

Central Ukrainian National Technical University

EP “Records Management and Information Activity”

Humanities Universities

Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine”

EP “Public and Administrative Authorities Management”; “Public Relations and Advertising”

Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University

EP “Information, Library and Archival Studies”

Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts

EP “Records Management, Public and Administrative Authorities Management”;

“Information Analytics in the Field of Management”; “Information Business Analytics”; “Communicative Management”

National Academy of Culture and Arts Management

EP “Library and Information Activity”; “Records Management and Information Systems and Resources”

National University of Ostroh Academy

EP “Records Management and Information Activity”;

“Information Analysis and Public Relations”

Rivne State Humanitarian University

EP “Records Management and Information Activity”;

“Book Science, Library Science and Bibliography”

Ukrainian Academy of Printing

EP “Records Management. Public and Administrative Authorities Management”;

“Library and Information Science and Book Studies Management”

Kharkiv State Academy of Culture

EP “Information and Records Management and Library Activity”;

“Information and Records Management Systems and Digital Archives”

The institutions of higher education of the collective (“Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine”) and the private (Private Higher Educational Institution “European University”) forms of ownership are focused on socio-communicative, not archival training.56

This new approach is demonstrated by the Department of Information and Documentation Systems of the Faculty of Social Communications of the Kharkiv State Academy of Culture, which, since 2018, has been training by the specialization “Information and Documentation Systems and Digital Archives,” focusing on the training of specialists in information, informational-and-documentary and information-and-archival activity.57

The lack of a unified approach to training specialists in the field of records management/archival studies by the leading institutions of higher education in Ukraine, stipulated both by the regional needs of the labor market and the specifics of the profile of each educational institution, resulted in the variability of educational and professional programs (EPs), a brief summary of which are open access on the websites of the abovementioned educational institutions, and in the variability of qualifications awarded within a single study program 029 “Information, Library and Archives Affairs,” as shown in Table 1.

Consequently, the carried out comparative analysis on the activities of the leading institutions of higher education in Ukraine regarding the training of specialists through study program 029 “Information, Library and Archival Studies” demonstrated the variability of educational and professional programs developed within the specialty.

Model of Training Specialists through Study Program 029 “Information, Library and Archival Studies”

A more individual approach toward the preparation of specialists in the field of records management and archival studies is adopted by the Department of History and Records Management in the structure of the Academic and Research Institute of Humanities of the National Aviation University, awarding both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in the new specialty “Information, Library and Archival Studies.”58 The Department also trains students based on an educational-professional program “Records Management and Information Activity,” accredited by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine back in 2003.

The main purpose of the Department is to train highly skilled, competent specialists possessing leadership skills and high moral qualities to be competitive in the labor market. The advantage of preparation at the NAU, as opposed to other HEIs that train specialists of the same field, lies in the fact that training at NAU provides an additional opportunity to obtain such professions in the field of information studies as those of an information analyst, records manager, and archival specialist.

After all, the normative requirements to the content of training specialists in this study program are based, first of all, on the ability to use Internet resources and technology to solve experimental, practical, and predictive tasks in the field of professional activity, on the knowledge of the theory and practice of archival institutions management, technologies for creating and maintaining the functioning of digital archives, the study and satisfaction of users’ information needs, the ability to track the trends of the subject area by means of a bibliography and WebMeter analyses of information flows and arrays, etc.

The basis for training specialists at the NAU is the application of an interdisciplinary principle that is realized via four blocks of disciplines, each with its specific courses: (1) social and humanitarian (“Business Foreign Language,” “International Information and Business,” a second foreign language); (2) computer technologies (“Computer Technologies in Records Management,” “Electronic Document Management,” “Management Information Systems,” “Consolidated Information”); (3) information and communication (“Social Communications,” “Public Relations,” “Modern PR Technologies and Advertising in Information Activities,” “Political Analytics and Forecasting”); (4) management (“Documentation and Information Support of Organizations,” “Personnel Management,” “Management of Information Products and Services,” “Electronic Governance,” “Document Management System,” “Organization of Analytical Services Activity”).

Particular attention is paid to the study of such disciplines as “Archival Science,” “Archival Studies and the Information Provision of Archival Insti­tutions,” “Records Management and Information Funds,” “Confidential Records Management,” and “Methods and Organization of Scientific Research in Records Management and Information Activities,” aimed at obtaining both general theoretical knowledge in the field of information, and archival affairs as well as practical skills of reference and informative analytics. It should be noted that the phase-by-stage preparation of a records manager-archivist starts at the Bachelor’s level, in the process of mastering the major discipline “Archival Studies,” and ends with the study of the discipline “Archival Studies and the Information Provision of Archival Institutions” at the level of a Master’s degree.

The formation of a records manager/archivist involves a multi-layered, interdisciplinary system of training that combines the theoretical knowledge gained from the history of archival affairs in Ukraine, the specifics of the formation of the national archival fund, the theory of archival institutions management, technologies for creating and maintaining the functioning of digital archives, and studying and meeting the information needs of users, with archival practice on the basis of the State Archives of the Kyiv region. In this archival institution, students learn and process all stages of working with archival documents, gaining the following professional competences: the ability to apply knowledge, abilities and skills in the field of theory and practice of information resources management and archival institution databases; possession of the latest technologies in the formation, use and storage of documentary resources, including archival and library ones; the ability to understand and use the laws of the information space development in order to organize effective management in the archival and library spheres.

Of importance is the fact that the students’ understanding of the problematic field of the scientific-theoretical and scientific-practical bases for the representation of archival information as a system of knowledge in documentary information systems takes place while studying in the course “Archival Studies and the Information Provision of Archival Institutions.” It provides the formation of a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of the discipline-specific system of scientific and technical information in the field of archival affairs and records management as an integral part of the national system of scientific and technical information, organization of the service of scientific and technical information of the archive, mastering the method of detection and analysis of the information needs of consumers of retrospective documentary information, and the skills to apply it in analytical work as well as in solving specific research tasks. As any discipline that is being developed at the junction of several fields, archival affairs and the information provision of archival institutions produces new knowledge using achievements and results obtained by other subject areas.

The pragmatic approach to training specialists in the specialty “Information, Library and Archival Studies” actualizes the orientation of curricula on the needs of the modern labor market, which includes not only state archival institutions, but also a wide sector of records management, as well as the archives of public organizations, private and business archives. In particular, the educational course “Records Management System” focuses on obtaining skills and abilities in the complex acquisition of modern records management systems and information and documentation systems for the management activities of organizations of various industries and forms of ownership. It also focuses on the skills required for the formation, use, and storage of such document resources (information, archival, library, etc.) while applying the latest information technologies.

Substantial changes have been made to the content and organization of on-the-job training. At present, the students obtaining a Master’s degree need to complete a research and pre-degree on-the-job training, pass a qualification exam, and produce a thesis. The specificity of pre-degree on-the-job training is that it is conducted in conditions that are adequate to the conditions of independent professional activity and should become the basis for writing a Master’s thesis. In the process of on-the-job training, the students apply the skills and abilities that they have acquired during their period of study at university; these students conduct independent studies and solve administrative tasks, form the ability to work with information flows and the ability to collect, process, and analyze data in order to solve specific tasks of an applied nature. Students acquire professional skills of independent decision-making at different levels of records management and information processes, develop information and analytical products (analytical reports, certificates, and marketing researches on information products and services), implement effective forms of e-governance, evaluate document information for the development of the nomenclature of cases and the examination of the values of documents for transfer to archives, and use their knowledge of application software for the creation and operation of digital documents, digital signatures, etc.

The organization of on-the-job training takes place not only in the archives but also at enterprises, institutions, and the organizations of state authorities and local self-government, in particular the State Archives of the Kyiv region, the Ukrainian Research Institute of Archival Affairs and Records Keeping, The Central State Electronic Archives of Ukraine, the Ministry of Information Policy of Ukraine, the State Service of Ukraine on Medicines and Drugs Control (archive department), Ukrinform – the State Information Agency (archives news), Kyiv Regional State Administration, Insurance company “Knyazha Vienna Insurance Group,” etc. Thus, in the process of training Master’s students, the content of disciplines reflects the current trends in the field of the theory and practice of records management and information activities. Integrated specifications of training specialists in the specialty “Information, Library and Archival Studies” by the Department of History and Records Management are presented in Table 2.

The effectiveness of the training model described above is determined by the systematic monitoring of graduates’ employment. In particular, the Department constantly maintains contacts with graduates, annually monitors data on their employment, their careers, and analyzes the reasons for changing their professions. The Department also examines the employers’ requirements, which are taken into account when revising the curricula in order to form the appropriate competencies of specialists. This increases the percentage of graduates who remain in the profession. According to the monitoring data for the years 2017–2019, 90% of graduates work within the same field that they graduated in.

TABLE 2. The model of training a records manager/archivist at the NAU.

Attainment level

Qualification

Profile of a specialist in the field of archival studies

Expertise level of information technologies competences

Master

Records manager/archivist

Archival value;

compilation of files and their storage;

archiving of documents;

possession of classification technologies, formation, use and storage of information resources, including digital ones;

assembly, processing, search, control over the passage and execution of documents;

archival search and analysis of consumer information needs;

Data analytics

Software user;

development of search engines

Manager of administrative activity, manager in the field of providing information services

Management of documentation processes, including electronic document flow;

transfer of documents to the archive;

creation, preservation, and ensuring effective access to information

Software user

Bachelor

Records manager

Executive assistant, organizer of document management in the field of records management and archival studies

Software user

Conclusions

The study of the experience of different countries and a comparative analysis, along with the traditions and tendencies of the development of a specialty in Ukraine, contributed to the establishment of the Department of History and Records Management at the NAU and prompted its own model of training specialists through the study program “Information, Library and Archival Studies,” which is based on the development of interdisciplinary competences that allow graduates to be competitive in the labor market in various types of activities, including the archival business. In particular, they can work at archival institutions at different levels, such as in the development, maintenance, and provision of effective access to information, as well as the evaluation of data and the archiving of information resources, including digital and archival search and an analysis of consumer information needs and information analytics.

Consequently, the model of vocational education of a records manager/archivist developed at the NAU is interdisciplinary in its essence and combines the training of a records manager, office manager, records manager/archivist, and information analyst that is also familiar with the latest information technologies.

Sources and Literature

1. L’Archivistes dans quinze ans. Nouvelles attentes, nouvelles responsabilités, nouveaux défis. SERVAIS, Paul et MIRGUET Françoise (eds). Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia-L’Harmattan .s.a., 2016 [interactive]. [accessed 11 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.editions-harmattan.fr/catalogue/couv/aplat/9782806102638.pdf>.

2. Archvistes de 2030. Réflexions prospectives. SERVAIS, Paul et MIRGUET Françoise (eds). Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia-L’Harmattan .s.a., 2015, 432 p. ISBN 978-2-8061-0214-0 [interactive]. [accessed 11 May 2018]. URL: <http://liseuse.harmattan.fr/978-2-8061-0214-0>.

3. BABELON, Jeane-Pierrre. Les Archives. Memoire de la France. Gallimar, 2008. 127 p.

4. BEZDRABKO, Valentyna. Arkhivna osvita v Ukraini: tradytsii ta tendenrsii. Ukrains’kyi istorykhnyi zhurnal, 2017, Nr 3, p. 131 [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. URL: <http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/handle/123456789/130491?show=full>.

5. BELIKOVA, Nataliya and ZOZULYA, Nataliya. Osvita regionu. Ukrains’kyi naukovyi zhurnal, 2014, Nr 1-2 [interactive]. [accessed 16 May 2018]. URL: <http://social-science.com.ua/article/1251>.

6. École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information . Présentation . Site officiel [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.ebsi.umontreal.ca/notre-ecole/presentation/>.

7. GRULICH, Petr. Cyber-archivist – Specifical Part of Future in Archivistics and education of Archivists. Historical and Cultural Heritage: Preservation, Access, Use. Iryna Tiurmenko (ed.). Ternopil, Beskydy. 2017, p. 75–79.

8. DEMOULIN, M. et SOYEZ, S. L’interdisciplinarité dans la formation archivistique : un atout pour l’archiviste de demain. Dans SERVAIS, Paul et MIRGUET Françoise (dir.). Archivistes de 2030 - Réflexions prospectives. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique : Academia – L’Harmattan. 2015. P. 157–169.

9. ZELLER, Jean-Daniel. Faut-ils des cyberarchivistes et quel doit être leur profil professionnel? Genève , 2004 [interactive]. [accessed 05 May 2018]. URL: < https://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/sic_00001747/file/CyArEditable.pdf>.

10. Kafedra arkhivoznavstva ta spetsialnykh haluzei istorychnoi nauky Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://archives.knu.ua/department>.

11. Kafedra bibliotekoznavstva i bibliohrafii Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Franka. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://kultart.lnu.edu.ua/department/bibliotekoznavstva-i-bibliohrafiji>.

12. Kafedra bibliotekoznavstva ta informolohii Kyivskoho universytetu imeni Borysa Hrinchenka. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://ij.kubg.edu.ua/struktura/kafedry/2016-06-23-13-44-24/pro-kafedru.html>.

13. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva, audiovizualnykh i naukovo-tekhnichnykh arkhiviv Rossyiskoho hosudarstvennoho humanytarnoho unyversyteta. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.rggu.fdta.ru/struktura-fakulteta/kafedra-dokumentovedeniya.html>.

14. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiinoi diialnosti «Vidkrytoho mizhnarodnoho universytetu rozvytku liudyny «Ukraina». Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <http://ab.uu.edu.ua/edu-specialty/22_dokumentoznavstvo_ta_informatsiina_diyalnist>.

15. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiino-analitychnoi diialnosti Pryvatnoho navchalnoho zakladu Yevropeiskyi universytet. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <https://e-u.in.ua/ua/navchalni-pidrozdili/kafedri/kafedra-dokumentoznavstva-ta-informatsijno-analitichnoji-dijalnosti/>.

16. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva i muzeinoi spravy Skhidnoievropeiskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Lesi Ukrainky. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://eenu.edu.ua/uk/chairs/dokumentoznavstva-i-muzeynoyi-spravi>.

17. Kafedra dokumentalnykh komunikatsii ta bibliotechnoi spravy Rivnenskoho derzhavnoho humanitarnoho universytetu [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://dk.rv.ua/>.

18. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiinoi diialnosti Natsionalnoi metalurhiinoi akademii. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <https://nmetau.edu.ua/ua/mdiv/i2046/p0>.

19. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiinoi diialnosti Natsionalnoho universytetu «Ostrozka akademiia». Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <https://www.oa.edu.ua/ua/departments/politics/pim_doc/>.

20. Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiino-analitychnoi diialnosti Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu kultury i mystetstv. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://fk.knukim.edu.ua/kafedry/kafedra-dokumentoznavstva-ta-informatsiinoi-diialnosti.html>.

21. Kafedra informatsiinoi, bibliotechnoi i knyzhkovoi spravy Ukrainskoi akademii drukarstva. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: http://www.uad.lviv.ua/home-uk-ua/strukturni-pidrozdily/fakultety-kafedry/27-fakultet-mediakomunikatsii-ta-pidpryiemnytstva/kafedra-informatsiinoi-bibliotechnoi-ta-knyzhkovoi-spravy?layout=>.

22. Kafedra informatsiino-dokumentnykh system Kharkivskoi derzhavnoi akademii kultury. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.ic.ac.kharkov.ua/navchannya/fsk/ids/ids.html>.

23. Kafedra informatsiino-dokumentnykh system Kharkivskoi derzhavnoi akademii kultury. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.ic.ac.kharkov.ua/navchannya/fsk/ids/ids.html>.

24. Kafedra informatsiinoi diialnosti ta media-komunikatsii Odeskoho natsionalnoho politekhnichnoho universytetu. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://hsf.opu.ua/chairs/dsia/specialization/metodichki>.

25. Kafedra istorii ta dokumentoznavstva Natsionalnoho aviatsiinoho universytetu. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://gmi2.nau.edu.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=36&Itemid=80>.

26. Kafedra kulturolohii ta informatsiinykh komunikatsii Natsionalnoi akademii kerivnykh kadriv kultury i mystetstva. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 17 May 2018]. URL: <https://nakkkim.edu.ua/instituti/institut-praktichnoji-kulturologiji-ta-art-menedzhmentu/kafedra-kulturologiji-ta-informatsiinyh-komunikatsii>.

27. Kafedra sotsialnykh komunikatsii ta informatsiinoi diialnosti Natsionalnoho universytetu «Lvivska politekhnika». Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://skid-lp.info/>.

28. Kafedra suspilnykh nauk, informatsiinoi ta arkhivnoi spravy Tsentralnoukrainskoho natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu. Sait kafedry [interactive]. [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <http://snd.kntu.kr.ua>.

29. LEVCHENKO, Larysa. Arkhivy i arkhivna sprava Spoluchenykh Shtativ Ameryky. [Mykolai: Ilion, 2013. 822–843 p. ISBN 978-617-534-206-0 [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.archives.gov.ua/Publicat/Levchenko_USA.pdf >.

30. LITVINSKAYA, Svetlana. Opyt prepodaniya distsiplin “Documentovedenie” i “Documentologiya” v Natsional’nom aviatsionnom universitete. Vestnik PGGU. Naukhnyi zhurnal, 2014, Nr 2 (124). Moskva: RGGU. 2014, p. 149–156.

31. MAKAROVA, Olersandra. Razvitie universitetskikh system rossiyskogo i frantsuzskogo obucheniya arkhivistov: istoriya i problemy sovremennosti. Internet zhurnal “Naukovedenie, 2015, T. 7, Nr 15, p. 1–15 [interactive]. [accessed 21 February 2019]. URL: <https://naukovedenie.ru/PDF/63PVN415.pdf>.

32. MATIASH, Iryna. Arkhivna nayka i osvita v Ukraini 1920-1930 rokiv. Kyiv: Derzhkomarkhiv Ukrainy, UNDIASD, 2000. 521 p. ISBN 966-625-024-1.

33. PALAMARKHUK, Ludmyla. Novi vymogy do pidgotovky arkhivistiv. Sekretar-referent. Kyiv, 2014, Nr 12, p. 612. p.7 [interactive]. [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <http://tsdea.archives.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/pages/19122014.pdf>.

34. PALIIENKO, Maryna. Istorykhni tradytsii ta sukhasni tendentsii rozvytku evropeis’koi i amerykans’koi modeli arkhivnoi osvity. Arkhivy Ukrainy, 2015, Nr 3, p. 35–60 [interactive]. [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.archives.gov.ua/Publicat/AU/AU_5-6_2015/03.pdf>.

35. Pro vyshchu osvitu. Zakon Ukrainy. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2014, Nr 37-38, st. 2004 [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: < http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1556-18>.

36. Pro zatverdzhennia natsionalnoi ramky kvalifikatsii. Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 23 lystopada 2011 roku [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1341-2011-%D0%BF>.

37. Pro zatverdzhennia pereliku haluzei znan i spetsialnostei, za yakymy zdiisniuietsia pidhotovka zdobuvachiv vyshchoi osvity. Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 29 kvitnia 2015 roku [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/266-2015-%D0%BF>.

38. Pro Natsionalnu doktrynu rozvytku osvity. Ukaz Prezydenta Ukrainy vid 17 kvitnia 2002 roku [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/347/2002>.

39. Pro osvitu. Zakon Ukrainy. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2017, Nr 38-30, st. 380 [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2145-19>.

40. Pro skhvalennia Kontsptsii rozvytku tsyfrovoi ekonomiky ta suspil’stva na 2018-2020 roky ta zatverdzhennia planu zakhodiv scodo ii realizatsii. Rozporiadzhennia Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 17 sichnia 2018 [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. URL: <https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/67-2018-%D1%80>.

41. Proekt standartu druhoho rivnia vyshchoi osvity zi spetsialnosti 029 «Informatsiina, bibliotechna ta arkhivna sprava» [interactive]. Proekty standartiv vyshchoi osvity. Ofitsiinyi sait Ministerstva osvity i nauky Ukrainy [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <https://mon.gov.ua/ua/osvita/visha-osvita/naukovo-metodichna-rada-ministerstva-osviti-i-nauki-ukrayini/proekti-standartiv-vishoyi-osviti>.

42. Reiestr subiektiv osvitnoi diialnosti. Zaklady vyshchoi osvity. Spetsialnist: Informatsiina, bibliotechna ta arkhivna sprava (029) [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <https://www.inforesurs.gov.ua/reestr/>.

43. SOYEZ, Sébastien. Défis et mutations : nouvelles compétences indispensables dans la formation archivistique belge. Documentation et bibliothèques, vol. 61, Issue 2–3, 2015, p. 125–128 [interactive]. [accessed 08 May 2018]. URL: <https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/documentation/2015-v61-n2-3-documentation02049/1032820ar/>. https://doi.org/10.7202/1032820ar

44. SPRINSYAN, Georgii. Peredumovy pidgotovky fakhivtsiv z dokumentatsiinogo menedzhmentu u vushchykh navchal’nykh zakladakh Ukrainy. Bibliotekoznavstvo. Documentoznavsrvo. Informologiya, 2014, Nr 2, p. 5360 [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/bdi_2014_2_12>.

45. SHCHRBLYAK, Yurii. Osoblyvosti pidgotovky fakhivtsiv zi spetsial’nosti “Documentoznavstvo ta informatsiina diyal’nist” u Ternopil’s’komu natsional’nomu ekonomichnomu universyteti. Pedegogichni nauky, 2013, Nr 1(57), p. 4654 [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://dspace.pnpu.edu.ua/bitstream/123456789/1067/1/Scherb.pdf>.

46. TIURMENKO, Iryna. Realizatsiya kompetentnostnogo podkhoda pri podgotovke dokumentovedov v Natsional’nom aviatsionnom universitete. Vestnik PGGU. Naukhnyi zhurnal, 2014, Nr 2 (124). Moskva: RGGU. 2014, p. 234340.

47. TIURMENKO, Iryna. Pidhotovka fakhivtsiv z dokumentoznavstva v Ukraini: dosvid ta perspektyvy rozvytku [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. URL: < http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/handle/ntb/14518>.

1 Ukraine’s course toward the formation of a digital society is enshrined in the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On Approval of the Concept for the Development of the Digital Economy and Society of Ukraine for 2018–2020 and approval of the Plan of Measures for its Implementation” dated January 17, 2018. [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. URL: <https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/67-2018-%D1%80>.

2 National Charter School is a member of the PS&L University (Paris Sciences et Lettres) [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. URL: <http://www.chartes.psl.eu/fr/rubrique-ecole/ecole-membre-campus-condorcet-paris-sciences-lettres-psl>.

3 BABELON, Jeane-Pierre. Les Archives. Memoire de la France. Gallimar, 2008. p. 13.

4 ZELLER, Jean-Daniel. Faut-ils des cyberarchivistes et quel doit être leur profil professionnel? Genève, 2004, p. 3 [interactive]. [accessed 10 November 2018]. URL: <https://docplayer.fr/10968998-Faut-il-des-cyberarchivistes-et-quel-doit-etre-leur-profil-professionnel.html>.

5 Jean-Daniel Zeller is specialist in archiving electronic documents, a certified Swiss archivist and information specialist, member of the Swiss Archivists Association, and member of the Steering Committee of the International Archives of the French-Speaking Portal (Portail International Archivistique FrancophonePIAF).

6 ZELLER, Jean-Daniel. Faut-ils des cyberarchivistes. P. 3-4 [interactive]. [accessed 11 May 2018]. URL: <https://docplayer.fr/10968998-Faut-il-des-cyberarchivistes-et-quel-doit-etre-leur-profil professionnel.htm>.

7 Archvistes de 2030. Réflexions prospectives. SERVAIS, Paul et MIRGUET Françoise (eds). Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia-L’Harmattan.s.a, 2015. 432 pISBN 978-2-8061-0214-0 [interactive]. [accessed 11 May 2018]. URL: <http://liseuse.harmattan.fr/978-2-8061-0214-0>.

8 L’Archivistes dans quinze ans. Nouvelles attentes, nouvelles responsabilités, nouveaux défis. SERVAIS, Paul et MIRGUET Françoise (eds). Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia-L’Harmattan .s.a., 2016. 268 p. [interactive]. [accessed 11 May 2018]. URL: <https://uclouvain.be/fr/decouvrir/archives/l-archiviste-dans-quinze-ans.html>.

9 SOYEZ, Sébastien. Défis et mutations : nouvelles compétences indispensables dans la formation archivistique belge. Documentation et bibliothèques, vol. 61, Issue 2–3, 2015, p. 125–128 [interactive]. [accessed 08 May 2018]. URL: <https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/documentation/2015-v61-n2-3-documentation02049/>.

10 SOYEZ Sébastien. Défis et mutations: nouvelles compétences indispensables dans la formation archivistique belge.

11 DEMOULIN, M. et SOYEZ, S. L’interdisciplinarité dans la formation archivistique: un atout pour l’archiviste de demain. Dans SERVAIS, Paul et MIRGUET Françoise (dir.). Archivistes de 2030 – Réflexions prospectives. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique : Academia – L’Harmattan. 2015. p. 157169.

12 MAKAROVA, Alexandra. Razvitie universitetskikh system rossiyskogo i frantsuzskogo obucheniya arkhivistov: istoriya i problemy sovremennosti. Internet zhurnal “Naukovedenie”. 2015, T. 7. Nr 15. P. 4–6, 14–15 [interactive]. [accessed 21 February 2019]. URL: <https://naukovedenie.ru/PDF/63PVN415.pdf >.

13 Kafedra dokumentoznavstva, audiovizualnykh i naukovo-tekhnichnykh arkhiviv Rossyiskoho hosudarstvennoho humanytarnoho unyversyteta [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 22 May 2018]. Access through Internet: <http://www.rggu.fdta.ru/struktura-fakulteta/kafedra-dokumentovedeniya.html>.

14 GRULICH, Petrdoc. PhD, Mgr., director The Museum of Eastern Bohemia in Hradec Králové, prof. University of Hradec Králové [interactive]. [accessed 11 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.muzeumhk.cz/petr-grulich.html>.

15 GRULICH, Petr. Cyberarchivist – Specifical Part of Future in Archivistics and education of Archivists. Historical and Cultural Heritage: Preservation, Access, Use. Iryna Tiurmenko (ed.). Ternopil, Beskydy. 2017, p. 7579.

16 BEZDRABKO, Valentyna. Documentoznavkha osvita v Ukraini: stanovlennia, sukhasnyi stan i perspertyvy [Record Keeping Education in Ukraine: formation, current state and prospects]. Gileia. Naukovyi visnyk. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats, 2009, Vyp. 20, p. 173186 [interactive]. [accessed 17 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.gileya.org/index.php?ng=library&cont=long&id=35>.

17 BELIKOVA, Nataliya and ZOZULYA, Nataliya. Osvita regionu. Ukrainskyi naukovyi zhurnal [Education Regions. Ukrainian Scientific Journal], 2014, Nr 1-2 [interactive]. [accessed 16 May 2018]. URL: <http://social-science.com.ua/article/1251>.

18 SHCHRBLYAK, Yurii. Osoblyvosti pidgotovky fakhivtsiv zi spetsialnostiDocumentoznavstvo ta informatsiina diyalnistu Ternopilskomu natsionalnomu ekonomichnomu universyteti. Pedegogichni nauky. [Peculiarities of Professionals Training in Record Keeping in Ternopil National Economic University. Pedagogical Sciences.] 2013, Nr 1(57), p. 4654 [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://dspace.pnpu.edu.ua/bitstream/123456789/1067/1/Scherb.pdf>.

19 SPRINSYAN, Georgii. Peredumovy pidgotovky fakhivtsiv z dokumentatsiinogo menedzhmentu u vushchykh navchalnykh zakladakh Ukrainy. Bibliotekoznavstvo. Documentoznavsrvo. Informologiya [Documentation Management Professionals Training Background in Higher Educational Institutions of Ukraine. Library Science, Record Keeping, Informology], 2014, Nr 2, p. 5360 [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/bdi_2014_2_12>.

20 LITVINSKAYA, Svetlana. Opyt prepodaniya distsiplinDocumentovedenieiDocumentologiyav Natsionalnom aviatsionnom universitete [Experience in Teaching Disciplines “Record Keeping” and “Document Studies” in the National Aviation University] Vestnik PGGU. Naukhnyi zhurnal, 2014, Nr 2 (124). Moskva: RGGU. 2014, p. 149–156.

21 TIURMENKO, Irina. Realizatsiya kompetentnostnogo podkhoda pri podgotovke dokumentovedov v Natsionalnom aviatsionnom universitete [Realization of Competence Approach while Training Records Managers in the National Aviation University]. Vestnik PGGU. Naukhnyi zhurnal, 2014, Nr 2 (124). Moskva: RGGU, 2014, p. 234–340.

22 PALAMARKHUK, Ludmyla. Novi vymogy do pidgotovky arkhivistiv. Sekretar-referent [New Requirements for Archivists Training. Executive-Assistent]. Kyiv, 2014, Nr 12, p. 612, p. 7 [interactive]. [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <http://tsdea.archives.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/pages/19122014.pdf>.

23 PALAMARKHUK, Ludmyla. Novi vymogy do pidgotovky arkhivistiv [New Requirements for Archivists Training]. p. 89.

24 Pro zatverdzhennya pereliku galuzhei znan’ i spetsial’nostei, za yakymy zdiisnyuetsya pidgotovka zdobuvachiv vyshchoi osvity: Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 29 kvitnya 2015 roku [On Approval of the List of Fields of Expertise and Specialities, according to which the Training of Candidates for Higher Education is carried out: The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine as of April 29, 2015] [interactive]. [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/bdi_2014_2_12>.

25 MATIASH Iryna. Arkhivna nayka i osvita v Ukraini 1920-1930 rokiv [Archival Science and Education in Ukraine in 1920-1930s]. Kyiv: Derzhkomarkhiv Ukrainy, UNDIASD, 2000. 521 p. ISBN 966-625-024-1.

26 LEVCHENKO, Larysa. Arkhivy i arkhivna sprava Spoluchenykh Shtativ Ameryky [Archives and Archival Sciences in the USA]. [Mykolai: Ilion, 2013. 822–843 p. ISBN 978-617-534-206-0 [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.archives.gov.ua/Publicat/Levchenko_USA.pdf >.

27 PALIIENKO, Maryna. Istorykhni tradytsii ta sukhasni tendentsii rozvytku evropeiskoi i amerykanskoi modeli arkhivnoi osvity. [Historical Traditions and Modern Trends of Development of European and American Archival Education Model]. Arkhivy Ukrainy, 2015, Nr 3, p. 3560 [interactive]. [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.archives.gov.ua/Publicat/AU/AU_5-6_2015/03.pdf>.

28 BEZDRABKO, Valentyna. Arkhivna osvita v Ukraini: tradytsii ta tendenrsi [Archival Education in Ukraine: traditions and trends]. Ukrains’kyi istorykhnyi zhurnal, 2017, Nr 3, p. 131 [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. Access through Internet: <http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/handle/123456789/130491?show=full>.

29 BEZDRABKO, Valentyna. Arkhivna osvita v Ukraini: tradytsii ta tendenrsii [Archival Education in Ukraine: traditions and trends]. p. 146.

30 BEZDRABKO, Valentyna. Arkhivna osvita v Ukraini: tradytsii ta tendenrsii [Archival Education in Ukraine: traditions and trends]. p. 136.

31 École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information. Présentation. Site officiel [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. Access through Internet: <http://www.ebsi.umontreal.ca/notre-ecole/presentation/>.

32 École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l’information. Cours et horeures. Site officiel [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. Access through Internet: <http://cours.ebsi.umontreal.ca/>.

33 Pro Natsionalnu doktrynu rozvytku osvity. Ukaz Prezydenta Ukrainy vid 17 kvitnia 2002 roku [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/347/2002>.

34 Proosvitu. ZakonUkrainy. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2107, Nr 38-30, st. 380 [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2145-19>.

35 Pro vyshchu osvitu. Zakon Ukrainy. Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy, 2014, Nr 37-38, st. 2004 [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: < http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1556-18>.

36 Pro zatverdzhennia natsionalnoi ramky kvalifikatsii. Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 23 lystopada 2011 roku [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1341-2011-%D0%BF>.

37 Pro zatverdzhennia pereliku haluzei znan i spetsialnostei, za yakymy zdiisniuietsia pidhotovka zdobuvachiv vyshchoi osvity. Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrainy vid 29 kvitnia 2015 roku [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/266-2015-%D0%BF>.

38 Proekt standartu druhoho rivnia vyshchoi osvity zi spetsialnosti 029 «Informatsiina, bibliotechna ta arkhivna sprava» [interactive]. Proekty standartiv vyshchoi osvity. Ofitsiinyi sait Ministerstva osvity i nauky Ukrainy [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <https://mon.gov.ua/ua/osvita/visha-osvita/naukovo-metodichna-rada-ministerstva-osviti-i-nauki-ukrayini/proekti-standartiv-vishoyi-osviti>.

39 Proekt standartu druhoho rivnia vyshchoi osvity zi spetsialnosti 029 «Informatsiina, bibliotechna ta arkhivna sprava» [interactive]. [accessed 10 May 2018]. URL: <https://mon.gov.ua/ua/osvita/visha-osvita/naukovo-metodichna-rada-ministerstva-osviti-i-nauki-ukrayini/proekti-standartiv-vishoyi-osviti>.

40 Reiestr subiektiv osvitnoi diialnosti. Zaklady vyshchoi osvity. Spetsialnist: Informatsiina, bibliotechna ta arkhivna sprava (029) [interactive]. [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <https://www.inforesurs.gov.ua/reestr/>.

41 TIURMENKO, Iryna Pidhotovka fakhivtsiv z dokumentoznavstva v Ukraini: dosvid ta perspektyvy rozvytku [interactive]. [accessed 18 February 2019]. URL: < http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/handle/ntb/14518 >.

42 Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiino-analitychnoi diialnosti Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu kultury i mystetstv [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://fk.knukim.edu.ua/kafedry/kafedra-dokumentoznavstva-ta-informatsiinoi-diialnosti.html>.

43 Kafedra kulturolohii ta informatsiinykh komunikatsii Natsionalnoi akademii kerivnykh kadriv kultury i mystetstva [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 17 May 2018]. URL: <https://nakkkim.edu.ua/instituti/institut-praktichnoji-kulturologiji-ta-art-menedzhmentu/kafedra-kulturologiji-ta-informatsiinyh-komunikatsii>.

44 Kafedra bibliotekoznavstva i bibliohrafii Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Franka [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://kultart.lnu.edu.ua/department/bibliotekoznavstva-i-bibliohrafiji>.

45 Kafedra informatsiinoi, bibliotechnoi i knyzhkovoi spravy Ukrainskoi akademii drukarstva [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: http://www.uad.lviv.ua/home-uk-ua/strukturni-pidrozdily/fakultety-kafedry/27-fakultet-mediakomunikatsii-ta-pidpryiemnytstva/kafedra-informatsiinoi-bibliotechnoi-ta-knyzhkovoi-spravy?layout=>.

46 Kafedra informatsiinoi, bibliotechnoi ta arkhivnoi spravy Kharkivskoi derzhavnoi akademii kultury [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.ic.ac.kharkov.ua/navchannya/fsk/ibas/ibas.html>.

47 Kafedra dokumentalnykh komunikatsii ta bibliotechnoi spravy Rivnenskoho derzhavnoho humanitarnoho universytetu [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://dk.rv.ua/>.

48 Kafedra bibliotekoznavstva ta informolohii Kyivskoho universytetu imeni Borysa Hrinchenka [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <http://ij.kubg.edu.ua/struktura/kafedry/2016-06-23-13-44-24/pro-kafedru.html>.

49 Kafedra arkhivoznavstva ta spetsialnykh haluzei istorychnoi nauky Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://archives.knu.ua/department>.

50 Kafedra dokumentoznavstva i muzeinoi spravy Skhidnoievropeiskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Lesi Ukrainky [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://eenu.edu.ua/uk/chairs/dokumentoznavstva-i-muzeynoyi-spravi>.

51 Kafedra sotsialnykh komunikatsii ta informatsiinoi diialnosti Natsionalnoho universytetu «Lvivska politekhnika» [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://skid-lp.info/>.

52 Kafedra informatsiinoi diialnosti ta media-komunikatsii Odeskoho natsionalnoho politekhnichnoho universytetu [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://hsf.opu.ua/chairs/dsia/specialization/metodichki>.

53 Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiinoi diialnosti Natsionalnoho universytetu «Ostrozka akademiia» [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <https://www.oa.edu.ua/ua/departments/politics/pim_doc/>.

54 Kafedra suspilnykh nauk, informatsiinoi ta arkhivnoi spravy Tsentralnoukrainskoho natsionalnoho tekhnichnoho universytetu [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <http://snd.kntu.kr.ua>.

55 Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiinoi diialnosti Natsionalnoi metalurhiinoi akademii [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 20 May 2018]. URL: <https://nmetau.edu.ua/ua/mdiv/i2046/p0>.

56 Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiinoi diialnosti «Vidkrytoho mizhnarodnoho universytetu rozvytku liudyny «Ukraina» [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <http://ab.uu.edu.ua/edu-specialty/22_dokumentoznavstvo_ta_informatsiina_diyalnist>; Kafedra dokumentoznavstva ta informatsiino-analitychnoi diialnosti Pryvatnoho navchalnoho zakladu Yevropeiskyi universytet [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 19 May 2018]. URL: <https://e-u.in.ua/ua/navchalni-pidrozdili/kafedri/kafedra-dokumentoznavstva-ta-informatsijno-analitichnoji-dijalnosti/>.

57 Kafedra informatsiino-dokumentnykh komunikatsii Kharkivskoi derzhavnoi akademii kultury [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 22 May 2018]. URL: <http://www.ic.ac.kharkov.ua/navchannya/fsk/ids/ids.html>.

58 Kafedra istorii ta dokumentoznavstva Natsionalnoho aviatsiinoho universytetu [interactive]. Sait kafedry [accessed 18 May 2018]. URL: <http://gmi2.nau.edu.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=36&Itemid=80>.