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Knygotyra ISSN 0204–2061 eISSN 2345-0053
2020, vol. 75, pp. 199–217 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15388/Knygotyra.2020.75.66

The Attribution of the Children’s Book Publishing Statistics in Ukraine in the Second Half of the 19th and Beginning of the 20th Centuries

Oksana Petrenko
Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine
3 Holosiivsky Ave., 03039 Kyiv, Ukraine
E-mail o-petrenko@ukr.net

Abstract. This article sheds light on the first research attempt to establish the bibliographic and statistical accounting of the books that were published in Ukraine in the 19th century. Besides, the article has analysed the beginning of the institutionalization of the children’s books’ publishing statistics in Ukraine. The author seeks to answer the question of who was at the origin of the formation of the children’s books’ publishing statistics. Library and museum funds became reliable sources of attribution of the children’s books’ publishing statistics in Ukraine. The results of received data on old-printed children’s books have been studied, systematised and compared with the data of other old-printed books that were found in other library collections. According to this, there is the conclusion about the primacy or repetition in the bibliographies of old-printed children’s books that became the basis for creating a summary table. This article offers insights into the chronology of publishing children’s books in Ukraine from the beginning of their publishing to the start of the state registration of publications.

Keywords: old-printed children’s books, attribution, accounting criteria, summarize statistical indicators.

Knygų vaikams leidyba Ukrainoje XIX a. antrosios pusės–XX a. pr. spaudos statistikos požiūriu

Santrauka. Straipsnyje aptariami pirmieji moksliniai bandymai sukurti bibliografinį ir statistinį XIX a. Ukrainoje leistų knygų sąvadą. Straipsnyje taip pat tiriama vaikų knygų leidybos statistikos institucionalizacijos pradžia Ukrainoje ir kokie tyrėjai ją pradėjo. Tyrimui pravertė bibliotekų ir muziejų fondai kaip patikimi šaltiniai aiškinantis vaikų knygų leidybos statistiką Ukrainoje. Surinkti senųjų spaudinių vaikams duomenys buvo ištirti, susisteminti ir palyginti su senųjų leidinių, esančių kitų bibliotekų kolekcijose, duomenimis. Daroma išvada apie pasikartojimus senųjų knygų bibliografiniuose sąrašuose, kuriais remiantis sukurtas priedas, pristatantis bibliografinių duomenų skirtumus. Straipsniu siekiama giliau pažvelgti į Ukrainoje leistų knygų vaikams chronologines ribas, t. y. nuo jų leidybos pradžios iki valstybinio leidinių registravimo įsigalėjimo.

Reikšminiai žodžiai: senieji spaudiniai vaikams, skaičiavimo kriterijai, bendrieji statistiniai rodikliai.

Received: 2020 04 30. Accepted: 2020 10 06
Copyright © 2020 Oksana Petreno. Published by Vilnius University Press. This is an Open Access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Introduction

In the era of global information and technological changes, against the background of the challenges of world pandemics, we consider the issue of rethinking sociocultural achievements by many nations to be of particular relevance. This is partly due to the identification and study of existing information gaps regarding the evolution of social communications of the respective states.

In professional book science, which studies the stages of the formation of social communications, the development of writing and book printing, relevant issues are always researched, and the further disclosure of its historical and cultural monuments, which include children’s books published before 1917.

In this context, which is quite natural, we see a need for the attribution of children’s books’ publishing statistics in Ukraine before State publishing registration had begun to function. At the same time, we emphasize that this need is based on the lack of any generalized systematized statistical indicators of publishing children’s books in pre-revolutionary Ukraine for chronological, geographical and linguistic accounting criteria.

At the beginning of the study, given its direction, we suggest further using the term “old-printed children’s books.” At first glance, such a proposal, from the bibliological point of view, does not have a sufficient scientific basis. For instance, employees of the Department of Old and Rare Publications of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine apply the definition “Old Printed Books” for books printed after the beginning of book printing in Europe through 18301. It is the same interpretation, but the term “Early Printed Books” is already used by the specialists of the Maksymovych Scientific Library of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Ukraine, although their website contains the name of the section as follows – “Old Printed Books.”2 The only logical difference among these textual definitions is the final chronological boundary: in the Vernadsky Library – until 1830, while in the Maksymovych Library – until 1800.

Similarly as the Maksymovych Scientific Library, the use of the term “Early Printed Books” is supported by the British Library3 and the Russian State Library4, although the latter defines the first quarter of the 19th century as the upper chronological boundary.

On the contrary, the National Library of Russia5 defines similar books by the term “Rare Books”. The Library of Congress in the USA6 holds on to the same notion.

Among the electronic sources, on the website of the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise, “Ukrainian Library Encyclopedia”7, we find another terminological version of the interpretation of books published in the period began immediately after the beginning of printing and before 1830 – “Hand Pressed Books”.

Despite the rather vague and conditional name of the books published in the period from the middle of the 15th century in the first quarter of the 19th century, we plan to use the opinion of the director of the Institute of Book Studies of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, doctor of historical sciences, professor, G. I. Kovalchuk. In her opinion, the departments of rare editions should be staffed with domestic publications of the nineteenth and even the first two decades of the twentieth century, taking into account the specifics of the history of Ukrainian book publishing, the censorship oppression of the Ukrainian word in the nineteenth century, the extremely poor preservation of such publications and the significance of each of them for Ukraine. An outstanding scientist notes: “We must not forget that in any industry there are, relatively speaking, their incunables, that are, the first editions of this subject, devoted, for example, to railways, cars, cinema, etc”8.

Such a statement gives us reason to consider such a decision is quite rational, since the publishing of children’s books in Ukraine began rather late in comparison with books for adults, and an approximate idea of the insignificant number of children’s books that have been saved only strengthens the confidence that children’s books published in Ukraine in the second half of the 19th century are old-printed within their target profile.

Consequently, scientifically substantiated identification and generalization of statistical indicators of the old-printed children’s books in Ukraine will have significant historical value and will promote the further application of statistical methods of research in bibliological disciplines.

Purpose Statement and Research Methodology

In the process of studying the historical conditions of social communications’ evolution, problems often arise concerning the identification and clarification of new facts, which is one of the attribution processes the subject under consideration. Meanwhile research into the children’s books’ publishing statistics in Ukraine, from the beginning of their production to the starting of the state publish registration, requires a comprehensive study of the organization of registration by chronological, geographical and linguistic criteria.

Thus the main aim of the publication is to identify and summarize the statistical indicators (by chronological, geographical and linguistic criteria) of the publishing old-printed children’s books until 1917 (start of the state publishing statistics) in the territory that corresponds to the borders of modern Ukraine.

The object of research is old-printed children’s books. Accordingly, as the subject of study, we define statistical indicators that will determine by identifying and summary of bibliographic information about present old-printed children’s books in library and museum funds in modern Ukraine.

This study set out to do such objectives:

to describe the features of the beginning of the publishing statistics in Ukraine;

to determine and clarify bibliographic information from the library and museum source bases for reliable analysis;

to identify and summarize statistical indicators of the publishing old-printed children’s books from the beginning of their production until 1917 based on chronological, geographical and linguistic criteria.

Methodology. The study of the children’s books’ publishing statistics in Ukraine is a direction in the history of social communications; therefore, it involves the use of common methods and rules of historical research. The methodological basis of the study is based on the principles of historicism, objectivity and systematic. Furthermore, the attribution of the children’s books’ publishing statistics, in addition to using traditional scientific methods (historical method, analysis, synthesis, generalization, comparison, induction and deduction), required the use of our own critical approaches (axiological, descriptive, structural-typological and quantitative).

Literature Review

Historically, the Ukrainian publishing statistics, including the children’s books’ publishing statistics, not only appeared based on an adjacent industry – bibliography, but also for a long time was an integral part of it. At the beginning of its existence, the publishing statistics, as a “young” science, developed in the context of a general bibliography. But in the conditions of strict censorship and severe imperial restrictions on Ukrainian book publishing, the impossibility of a nationwide bibliographic and statistical accounting of editions became apparent.

As a result, materials were gradually appearing on the issues of not exclusively Ukrainian accounting, but of a much smaller, local character. These concerned primarily the issues of the statistical study of publishing activities of individual publishing centres, literary, scientific and public associations and organizations. Therefore, it is quite understandable that bibliographic, and then statistical accounting was carried out primarily in relation to the largest centres of publishing.9

Such a narrowing of the object of statistical research limited the possibilities for broad generalizations and conclusions but created conditions for a more accurate and in-depth study of it, which was possible for statistician enthusiasts who could not count on the state’s or someone else’s substantial support.

As for the separate statistical bibliography accounting of children’s books from the moment of its first issue to the start of state publishing statistics in Ukraine, we can confidently assert its absence. Despite considerable bibliographic and literary-critical information about the increasing array of children’s books in Ukraine, information about the publishing of children’s books in pre-revolutionary Ukraine has not yet been singled out among general bibliographic lists, and the available bibliographic materials do not always provide comprehensive information on the intended purpose of registered publications.

In our opinion, the most complete (by capabilities) local statistical register of children’s books can be considered the reporting materials of B. D. Grinchenko, which he gave in the table in the middle of the article The Publication at the Expense of Ivan Cherevatenko and His Name’s Prize. The table contains information on 36 inexpensive popular books published by B. D. Grinchenko from 1894 to 190010. Almost all of these books are considered acceptable for children’s reading. Moreover, before and after the table, the publisher lists 29 books that censorship forbade him to issue11.

Unfortunately, in 1900 various circumstances forced the author and the administrator of publications to stop publishing exclusively Ukrainian inexpensive books at the expense of the philanthropist. The money received for the sale of such books was returned to the Ivan Cherevatenko Foundation to issue prizes for non-fiction books12.

The publication structure (the terms of Boris Grinchenko’s deal with brothers Nikolay and Stepan Cherevatenko, the statistical table, the list of books prohibited for publication, financial statements and the Foundation Statute) indicates the publisher’s desire to report as much as possible about book publishing and bookselling statistics. This combination suggests that B. D. Grinchenko’s search for effective criteria for publishing and trading accounting of his publishing house, which is the basis for objective statistics.

Formation of the Statistical Indicators of Children’s Books Publishing by Chronological, Geografical and Linguistic Criteria

The analysis of critical approaches to the attribution of the studied subject provided for the use of modern information and bibliographic sources. In other words, the subject matter of the research made it necessary to refer to the available reference and bibliographic resources of the Ukrainian fundholders.

The source database is based only on catalogues of the Ukrainian library and museum organizations, whose funds contain old-printed children’s books. Now we are talking about the fact that for the maximum reliability of the study we used information about children’s books that have survived to this day, rather than simply being described and listed in bibliographical indexes or lists of publishers, to maximize the validity of the study.

To determine the circle of the respective fundholders, the search was started from the main library of Ukraine – the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise (the NLU named after Yaroslav the Wise) – and was subsequently carried out according to the list of organizations-compilers of the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertoire. It is implied that searching was made trough the website of the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise, which is the manager of organizations-compilers of the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertoire. We utilized bibliographical information about old-printed children’s books in library and museum funds from the search database, “The Consolidated Catalogue of Ukrainian Books (1798–1923)”13. This consolidated catalogue of the Ukrainian book became a component of the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertoire.

Now the electronic catalogue contains information about books in Ukrainian and Russian, published from 1798 to 1923 in Ukraine, which are stored in the collections of leading libraries and museums of Ukraine. The chronological framework of the catalogue is established from the beginning issue of new Ukrainian literature (the publication of Aeneids by I. Kotlyarevsky) to the beginning of the State Publish Registration by the Book Chamber of Ukraine (Kharkiv, 1923/1924). In passing, we note that all fundholders of Ukrainian books of 1798–1923 are constantly engaged in updating the consolidated electronic catalogue.

In fact, the most comprehensive list of organizations compiling the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertoire – 80 libraries, museums and archives of various levels and areas of subordination – is presented on the website of the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise. Despite that, we consider the lack of the ability to search for publications from the collections of the NLU named after Yaroslav the Wise as one of the drawbacks of the consolidated catalogue presented on the Library’s website. The technologically necessary search can be carried out through another electronic catalogue – the “The Catalogue of Rare and Valuable Editions”14. Ultimately, such a search revealed that in the electronic catalogue of the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise were 15 bibliographic records of children’s books published in Ukraine from 1894 to 1916.

Further analysis of information from the consolidated electronic catalogue of books published in Ukraine in Ukrainian and Russian from 1798 to 1923 found that among the list of the leading libraries and museums of Ukraine there are fundholders that are directly related to children’s books, namely: the National Library of Ukraine for Children (the NLU for Children), the Kyiv Regional Library for Children, the Zaporizhzhya Regional Library for Children, the V. O. Sukhomlynskyi State Scientific and Pedagogical Library of Ukraine and the Museum of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine (the Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine).

According to the logic of things, at different points of remote access to the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertoire, that is, on the websites of composing organizations, the list of organizations themselves should be the same. Instead, on the website of the National Library of Ukraine for Children, this list is limited to 27 library and museum organizations at various levels and areas of subordination, of which only 2 are children’s libraries: the National Library of Ukraine for Children, the Kyiv Regional Library for Children. In our opinion, this is explained by the fact that this site presents an abridged version of the consolidated catalogue of the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertoire – “The Book for Children in Ukraine 1798-1923”15.

As for the identity of search results through different points of remote access to the Ukrainian Bibliographic Repertory, certain differences are also recorded here. For example, statistical indicators that are summarized from the database of the site of the NLU named after Yaroslav the Wise of the NLU’s for Children Fund are slightly different from the indicators obtained directly from the site of the main children’s library of the country. In particular, there are no bibliographic records of 2 children’s books (published in Odessa in 1900 and 1911), which are stored in the Children’s Library. Besides, two more bibliographic records on jointly published books (in Kyiv and Odesa) indicate only one place of publication – Odesa. At the same time, there are bibliographic records of editions that cannot be found during a search query through the NLU for Children website – 1 book (Kyiv, 1889), 1 book (Odesa, 1890).

After the comparative analysis of bibliographic data, the decision was made to take basic information from the fundholders’ own websites. Finally, the information and bibliographic search using the website of the National Library of Ukraine for Children produced the following result: the Library collection contains 88 old-printed children’s books, of which 60 are published in Ukrainian, 26 – in Russian, 1 book in Polish and 1 book in French (1842–1916).

As to direct searches using the current site of the Kyiv Regional Library for Children16, unfortunately, this procedure has remained unfulfilled due to the technical inaccessibility to the electronic catalogue specified in the section, “The Electronic Resources”17. Nevertheless, thanks to the NLU’s for Children website with enhanced capabilities of its electronic catalogue, “The Book for Children in Ukraine 1798–1923”, the notation, “Kyiv Regional Library for Children”, in the search field, “Fundholders” 5 books were found (3 – Ukrainian and 2 – in Russian) of 1892–1913 issue that we consider acceptable for children’s reading.

The funds of the Zaporizhzhya Regional Library for Children contain only 1 book – The Life and Works of Taras Shevchenko (Kyiv, 1882), which is included into the state bibliographic repertoire, but in our opinion it cannot be considered as children’s literature, although it is included into the rubric “The Oldest Books of ‘The Young Reader’”18.

The V. O. Sukhomlynskyi State Scientific and Pedagogical Library of Ukraine, according to its target profile, has in its fund old textbooks, study guides, atlases, anthologies, various notebooks and collections of books. The reading books and grammars available in the funds of the Pedagogical Library have a purely educational-methodical profile and are considered by us as auxiliary materials for teaching, therefore they do not belong to children’s books19. Yet the Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine contains in its funds as many as 31 books (29 – Ukrainian and 2 – Russian) published in 1893–1916, which, within the geographically and chronologically specified parameters, are considered to be children’s books20. Now it is worth noting that the bibliographic information about the children’s books in the Pedagogical Museum’s collection is absolutely identical to the corresponding information posted on the website of the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise that is in the database, “Consolidated Catalogue of Ukrainian Books (1798–1923)”21.

Special attention should be paid to the materials of the catalogue-guide, “The Collection ‘Ukrainian Children’s Book 1885–1923’ of the Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine”22, which is a printed version of the list of books presented on the museum’s website under the heading “The Collection ‘Ukrainian Children’s Book 1885–1922”23. However, we do note that the materials of the printed catalogue-guide provide much more bibliographic information about children’s books from the Museum. The specified collection is a component of the scientific object, “Collection of Old-Printed Books of the Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine” (manuscripts, old-printed and rare editions of 1477–1923). The catalogue-guide contains several annotated indexes that reveal additional information on the statistics of the of children’s book publishing, such as “Authors, editors, compilers”, “Translators”, “Artists”, “Publishers and printers”, “Cultural and educational organizations”, “Publishing organizations” and “Publishing series”. Besides, the catalogue-guide also contains the following auxiliary indexes: by names, titles of the publishing works, printing houses, publishing organizations and institutions, publishers and publishing houses, publishing places of editions, ex-libris, seals, stamps, dedications, epigraphs and other marks24. We emphasize that the scientists of the Museum had arranged all bibliographic descriptions of editions in the chronological order, and within a certain year – according to the alphabetical order of the authors and names. In the catalogue-guide, the information about 123 children’s editions is structurally divided into 5 groups, among which for research we used the following: “Ukrainian-Language Original Editions”, “Ukrainian-Language Translated Editions”, “Publications in Russian” and “Collections”.

The bibliographic search of information on the availability of children’s books among the collections of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine (the VNLU), the largest of the earlier listed fundholders, found that on the website of this Library25 there is not a single hint of the VNLU participation in the creation of the database “The Consolidated Catalogue of Ukrainian Books (1798–1923).” This state of affairs is indirectly evidenced by the lack of search results through the site of the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise.

On the other hand, the Vernadsky NLU website offers a search using the thematic navigator26. This navigator can be justifiably considered the parallel equivalent of subject headings since the search takes place in the sections of knowledge that are located in a logical sequence identical to the structure of the LBC tables. A step-by-step search of bibliographic records using the thematic navigator on the website of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine found 6 children’s books (1883–1914) in the collection: 5 of them were printed in Ukrainian and 1 in Russian.

It is worth recalling that since the beginning of the scientific research, filling the source database involved the search and identification of bibliographic information about the available children’s books in the funds of the National Historical Library of Ukraine27. As matter as fact, editions corresponding to the chronological framework necessary for the study and classified for social purposes as “children’s books” have not been found.

As a result, a detailed bibliographic search revealed that the collections of Ukrainian libraries and the Pedagogical Museum total 145 children’s books published in Ukraine from 1842 to 1916 and comprises 132 titles. One of these names was first published by the publisher F. A. Johanson in Kyiv and Kharkiv in 1897, and then two more names were published by his successor, P. I. Bonadurer, in Kyiv, Odesa and St. Petersburg in 1913. Unconditional leadership in the number of editions available in the fund belongs to the NLU for Children – 88 books, of which 60 are in Ukrainian, 26 – in Russian, and 1 book each in French and Polish. Significantly fewer children’s books are kept in the Pedagogical Museum – 31 books, of which 29 are in Ukrainian and only 2 in Russian. Half the performances in the NLU Yaroslav the Wise – 15 books and all of them are published in Ukrainian. Even smaller figures for the Vernadsky NLU fund: 6 books (5 – Ukrainian and 1 – in Russian). The smallest number of children’s books is recorded in the fund of the Kyiv Regional Library for Children: 5 books (3 – in Ukrainian and 2 – in Russian).

It is also determined that among the studied array of children’s books some have their doublets in other funds. The result of a comparative analysis of bibliographic records of old-printed children’s books identified 12 doublets: Lviv – 6 titles, Kyiv – 3 titles, Chernihiv – 1 title, Gadyach – 1 title, Katerinoslav – 1 title. For example, the National Library of Ukraine for Children has 10 books in its fund, the exact copies of which are in the National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise (5 titles), the Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine (3 titles) and the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine (2 titles). The next in the number of “book repetitions” by 6 books are the National Library of Ukraine Yaroslav the Wise (5 titles in the NLU for Children and 1 title in the Pedagogical Museum) and the Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine (3 titles in the NLU for Children, 1 title in the NLU named after Yaroslav the Wise, 1 titles in the Vernadsky NLU and 1 title in the Kyiv Regional Library for Children). Half smaller repetitions were recorded in the fund of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine (2 titles in the NLU for Children and 1 title in the Pedagogical Museum). And finally, the smallest duplicity was found in the Kyiv Regional Library for Children – 1 book from the fund of the Pedagogical Museum.

Also, it was established that the oldest edition among children’s books, which are known to be still kept in these funds, is The Book for Young Readers by Grigory Pekhotinsky published in Russian at the Printing House of Kharkiv University in 1842.

The geographical aspect of the study identified six major publishing centres for children: Kyiv (58 titles), Lviv (37 titles), Odesa (10 titles), Chernivtsi (8 titles), Kharkiv (5 titles) and Chernihiv (5 titles). In these cities, books for children were published relatively systematically throughout the specified period. The rest of the publishing centres belonged Katerinoslav (4 titles), Poltava (3 titles), Gadyach (1 title), Kolomyya (1 title), Kremenets (1 title), Nemyriv (1 title) and Zhytomyr (1 title). It was also found out that the publishing of
children’s books in these cities, except Katerinoslav, began only at the beginning of the twentieth century.

The chronological review revealed the stability in digital indicators by year of issue in the second half the 19th century and the relative dynamics of growth in the number of children’s books since 1904. Statistical data (see Table: Part 1 and Part 2) indicate that there was an element of randomness in the chronology of publishing children’s books in Ukraine. This is partly due to the limited technical base of most publishers, who did not always have their own printing houses, proper equipment and financial capacity.

Besides, we have to note the lack of data on circulation in the children’s book issue data. It should be focused on such a publishing flaw that makes it impossible to carry out full-fledged statistical accounting of children’s books of this period. Among the studied book array information about circulation was given only in 2 books (printed in Kyiv at the beginning of 20th century), which are kept in the main children’s library of the country.

Bibliographic search and descriptive analysis of information about publishers (publishing and cultural-educational organizations) indicated in children’s books gives a reason to assert that Lviv publishers are the most conscientious in providing the initial data by editions. As for the anti-rating on this issue, errors in the design of the initial data of children’s books were mainly made by publishers of various publishing centres, except for the main ones mentioned above.

In this context, it should be noted that in the vast majority of the analyzed books, information is given only on the name of the manufacturer of the publishing products (that is, on the printing house) without the name or the denomination of the publisher. As a rule, children’s books, the publishing of which are dated from the end of the 19th century, indicated information on the names of the printing houses, the names of the printing houses’ leaders, or the names of the organizations on whose behalf the publication was made (prototypes of modern information on responsibility). For example, in the books that were released in 1896, you can find the following information: “Printing House of the Shevchenko Scientific Soc[iety]. Under the charge of K. Bednarskiy”, information about the printing house and the name of its head; “Circulation of the Russian Pedagogical Society”, information about the organization on which behalf the publication of a children’s book was made; or “Printing House of the Provincial Zemstvo”, the only information about the printing house; “The edition of B. Grinchenko. Printed at the expense of I. Cherevatenko”, information about the publisher and the person through whom the book was published.

In our opinion, such rules for processing the initial data of children’s books of the studied period somewhat complicate the statistical accounting of publishers, since the nature of the work they perform differs from the work processes performed by manufacturers, in other words, printing houses.

So, the following in children’s books including their publishers were found in the studied museum and library collections:

Chernihiv (1): publisher B. D. Grinchenko.

Chernivtsi (4): “Library for youth”; cooperative credit union, “Rural Cash”; partnership, “Russian Talk”; Chernivtsi Suburban Branch Partnership, “Ukrainian School”.

Katerinoslav (1): “Ukrainian Publishing House in Katerinoslav”.

Kharkiv (4): “A. F. Gergard Music Store”; publishers V. I. Potapov and V. I. Rapp; “F. A. Yohanson South Russian Book Publishing House”.

Kyiv (13): publisher P. I. Bonadurer; publishing partnership, “Corn­flowers”; publishing house, “Day-spring”; A. T. Duchinskaya Private Women’s Gymnasium; publishing house, “Epoch”; publisher Ye. Ya. Fedorov; publishing house, “Field”; publisher L. Idzikowski; Researchers’ Comradeship of Volyn; publisher I. I. Samonenko; publishing house, “Ukrainian Teacher” (from 1908 to 1912 functioned in Kyiv); publishing partnership, “[Water] Well”; publisher F. A. Yohanson.

Lviv (5): publisher K. Pankowski; maecenas M. F. Poremba; Russian Pedagogical Society (from 1881 to 1912) later renamed Ukrainian Pedagogical Society (from 1912 to 1926); Shevchenko Scientific Society; Ukrainian-Russian Publishing Union.

Odesa (3): publisher E. Berndt; publisher P. I. Bonadurer; South-Russian Union Printed Business.

Poltava (2): G. I. Markevich Bookstore; publishing house, “Ukrainian Teacher” (from 1906 to 1907 functioned in Poltava).

• The list of printing houses in which children’s books were printed is longer than the list of publishers:

Chernihiv (2): Printing House of the Provincial Government; Printing House of the Provincial Zemstvo.

Chernivtsi (2): printing house, “Ruska Council”; printing house, “Ruska School”.

Gadyach (1): Gadyach Zemstvo Printing House.

Katerinoslav (2): K. A. Andruschenko Printing House; S. P. Yakovlev Printing House.

Kharkiv (4): A. Darre Printing House; G. B. Molchadskiy Printing House, Printing House “Printing business”; University Printing House.

Kolomyya (1): A. I. Mizevich Printing House.

Kremenets (1): L. D. Shumskiy Printing House.

Kyiv (20): M. A. Barschevskiy Printing House; printing house of the joint-stock company, “Petr Barskiy in Kyiv” (from 1912, printing house “Petr Barskiy”); P. I. Bonadurer Printing House; V. P. Bondarenko and P. F. Gnizdovskiy Printing House; S. A. Borisov Printing House; I. I. Chokolov Printing House; Davidenko Printing House; Ye. Ya. Fedorov Printing House; Printing House of the First Kyiv Artel Printing Business; Printing House of the First Kyiv Printing Union; M. P. Frits Printing House; G. L. Frontskevich Printing House; A. I. Grossman Printing House; Printing House of Imperial University St. Vladimira; G. T. Korchak-Novitskiy Printing House; S. V. Kulzhenko Printing House; Ya. Ozokolov Printing House; Printing House of the Second Kyiv Artel; I. I. Tehokolof Printing House; S. T. Yeremeyev Printing House.

Lviv (1): Printing House of Shevchenko Scientific Society.

Nemyriv (1): R. B. Sherr Printing House.

Odesa (5): Galperin and Shveitser Printing House; L. Nitche Printing House; A. Shultse Printing House, Z. L. Slapak Printing House; Printing House of South-Russian Union Printed Business.

Poltava (2): G. I. Markevich Printing House; F. F. Shindler Printing House.

Zhytomyr (1): Volyn Provincial Printing House.

Conclusions

This analysis made it possible to statistically define children’s books’ publishing in Ukraine in the second half of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, to the following conclusions:

The first local statistical register of children’s book publishing were the reporting materials of B. D. Grinchenko.

By territorial affiliation, children’s books were published in 13 cities of Ukraine in the pre-revolutionary period: Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Gadyach, Katerinoslav, Kharkiv, Kolomyya, Kremenets, Kyiv, Lviv, Nemyriv, Odesa, Poltava, Zhytomyr. Most of the publications were published in Kyiv (58), Lviv (37), Odesa (10) and Chernivtsi (8).

The oldest book preserved among library collections so far is dated to 1842.

By chronological affiliation, a significant increase in the publishing repertoire of the children’s books is observed in the first decade of the 20th century.

By languages, quantitative indicators of an array of children’s books published in Ukrainian significantly prevail.

Based on the number of children’s books by publishers, we should separately allocate among them the following: the “Russian Pedagogical Society” (later named the “Ukrainian Pedagogical Society”) published 26 titles of books in Lviv; the publishing house “Ukrainian Teacher” published 14 titles of books in Kyiv and 1 title of the book in Poltava; the publisher B. D. Grinchenko issued 1 title of the book in Chernihiv.

The bibliographic information about children’s books in library and museum collections, as a source base for the research, allowed us systematized and (for the first time) generalized statistical information on the publishing children’s books in 1842–1916. Hence, in further studies of the children’s book publishing statistics in Ukraine, all the digital indicators obtained cannot be of lesser value than those in the descriptive analysis conducted by the author of the study, as it provides for the further revealing of old-print children’s books in the funds of other libraries, museums and archives.

In conclusion, we assume that the facts obtained as a result of bibliographic research and source-based assessment can be used to a large extent as evidence of the reliability of generalized statistical indicators on children’s book publishing in Ukraine before the introduction of the State Publish Registration.

Sources and Literature

1. Collekcia “Ukrainska dytyacha knyga 1885–1923 rr.” Pedagogichnogo museyu Ukrainy: catalog-putivnyk. Kyiv: Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine, 2015. 144 p. ISBN 978-617-7021-30-7.

2. GRINCHENKO, B. Vydannya koshtom Ivana Cherevatenka i yogo premii. In Literaturno-naukovyy visnyk, 1901, [annual 4, t. 13], book 3, p. 193–200.

3. Kyiv Regional Library for Children [interactive]. Kyiv: Kyiv Regional Library for Children, [no date] [accessed 09 April 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://child-library.kiev.ua>.

4. National Library of Ukraine for Children [interactive]. Kyiv: National Library of Ukraine for Children, 2010 [accessed 2020 April 08]. Access through Internet: <http://www.chl.kiev.ua>.

5. National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise [interactive]. Kyiv: National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 08]. Access through Internet: <https://nlu.org.ua>.

6. NYZOVYY, M. A. Ukrainska statystyka druku: osnovni etapy stanovlennya ta rozvytku. Kyiv: Book Chamber of Ukraine, 2002. 96 p. ISBN 966-647-027-6.

7. Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine [interactive]. Kyiv: Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 09]. Access through Internet: <http://pmu.in.ua>.

8. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine [interactive]. Kyiv: Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 10]. Access through Internet: <http://www.nbuv.gov.ua>.

9. V. O. Sukhomlynskyi State Scientific and Pedagogical Library of Ukraine [interactive]. Kyiv: Sukhomlynskyi State Scientific and Pedagogical Library of Ukraine, 2015 [accessed 2020 April 09]. Access through Internet: <https://dnpb.gov.ua/en>.

10. Zaporizhzhya Regional Library for Children [interactive]. Zaporizhzhya: Zaporizhzhya Regional Library for Children, [no date] [accessed 2020 April 09]. Access through Internet: <http://zobd.zp.ua>.

APPENDIX
Children’s books in funds NLU for Children, NLU named after Yaroslav the Wise, Vernadsky NLU, Kyiv Regional Library for Children and Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine
Part 1

cities

Chernihiv

Katerinoslav

Kharkiv

Kyiv

Lviv

Odesa

Total names

languages

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

anoth. lang.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

1842

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1864

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

1874

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1876

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

3

1877

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1882

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1883

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1885

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

1890

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1892

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

1893

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

2

1894

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

1

-

3

1896

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

1897

-

-

-

-

-

1*

-

1*

-

-

-

1

-

1+1*=2

1898

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1899

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

1

5

1900

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

4

1901

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

1902

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

1903

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

4

1904

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

2

1905

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1906

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

6

1907

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

2

-

-

1

4

1908

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

1

-

-

-

5

cities

Chernihiv

Katerinoslav

Kharkiv

Kyiv

Lviv

Odesa

Total names

languages

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

anoth. lang.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

1909

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

1

-

1

-

-

-

6

1910

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1911

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

-

1(fr.)

1

-

-

-

12

1912

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

3

-

-

-

7

1913

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1+2*

-

1

-

-

2*

4+2*=4

1914

-

-

-

-

-

1

8

1

-

7

-

-

-

17

1915

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

1916

-

-

1

-

-

-

4

-

1(pol.)

-

-

-

-

6

Total

5

0

1

3

0

4+1*

43

10+3*

2

37

0

2

6+2*

88+26
(+3*)+2

Together

5

4

4+1*=5

55+3*=58

37

8+2*=10

116+3*

* - corporate editions

Part 2

cities

Chernivtsi

Gadyach

Kolomyya

Kremenets

Nemyriv

Poltava

Zhytomyr

Total names

lang.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

ukr.

rus.

1902

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1903

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1904

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

2

1905

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1906

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1907

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

2

1909

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1911

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1912

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

1914

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1915

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

Total

8

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

3

0

0

1

13+3

Toget-
her

8

1

1

1

1

3

1

16

1 Department of rare and old books. In Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine [interactive]. Kyiv: Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, 2020 [accessed 21 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/node/30>.

2 About the repository. In Old Printed Books. Digital repository of european rarities [interactive]. Kyiv: National Taras Shevchenko University, 2006 [accessed 21 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://rare.univ.kiev.ua/eng/repository/about.php3>.

3 Explore Archives and Manuscripts. In British Library [interactive]. London: British Library, [no date] [accessed 22 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://searcharchives.bl.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?fn=search&ct=search&initialSearch=true&mode=Basic&tab=local&indx=1&dum=true&srt=rank&vid=IAMS_VU2&frbg=&vl%28freeText0%29=early+printed+books&scp.scps=scope%3A%28BL%29>.

4 COLLECTION OF RARE AND VALUABLE BOOKS. In Russian State Library [interactive]. Moscow: Russian State Library, 2017 [accessed 22 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <https://www.rsl.ru/en/funds/>.

5 Rare Books. Brief Summary. In National Library of Russia [interactive]. St. Petersburg: National Library of Russia, 2020 [accessed 22 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://nlr.ru/eng/RA2325/rare-books>.

6 Selected Special Collections. Children’s Book Collection. Children’s Books, Eighteenth Century to Present. In Library of Congress [interactive]. Washington: Library of Congress, 2015 [accessed 22 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/coll/046.html>.

7 KOVALCHUK, G. I. Starodruky. In Ukrainska Bibliotechna Encyclopedia [interactive]. Kyiv: National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise, 2015 [accessed 21 March 2020]. Access through Internet: <http://ube.nlu.org.ua/article/Стародруки>.

8 KOVALCHUK, G. I. Tradyciyni coleccii viddiliv starodrukiv ta ridkisnyh vydan. Problemy formuvannya. In Medievist: ukrainska latynomovna literature [interactive]. [no place: no publisher], 2013 [accessed 2020 March 21]. Access through Internet: <https://www.medievist.org.ua/2013/03/blog-post_8657.html>.

9 NYZOVYY, M. A. Ukrainska statystyka druku: osnovni etapy stanovlennya ta rozvytku. Kyiv, 2002, p. 12–13.

10 GRINCHENKO, B. Vydannya koshtom Ivana Cherevatenka i yogo premii. In Literaturno-naukovyy visnyk, 1901, book 3, p. 196–197.

11 GRINCHENKO, B. Vydannya koshtom Ivana Cherevatenka i yogo premii …, p. 194–195, 198.

12 GRINCHENKO, B. Vydannya koshtom Ivana Cherevatenka i yogo premii, p. 199.

13 Zvedenyy catalog ukrainskoi knygy (1798–1923 rr.). In Nacionalna biblioteka Ukrainy imeni Yaroslava Mudrogo [interactive]. Kyiv: National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 08]. Access through Internet: <http://ukr.catalogue.nlu.org.ua/>.

14 Catalog ridkisnyh i cinnyh vydan. In Nacionalna biblioteka Ukrainy imeni Yaroslava Mudrogo [interactive]. Kyiv: National Library of Ukraine named after Yaroslav the Wise, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 08]. Access through Internet: < http://rk.catalogue.nlu.org.ua/>.

15 Knyga dlya ditey v Ukraini 1798–1923 rokiv. In National Library of Ukraine for Children [interactive]. Kyiv: National Library of Ukraine for Children, 2010 [accessed 2020 April 08]. Access through Internet: <http://www.chl.kiev.ua/Catalog.aspx>.

16 Kyivska oblasna biblioteka dlya ditey [interactive]. Kyiv: Kyiv Regional Library for Children, [no date] [accessed 2020 April 08]. Access through Internet: <http://child-library.kiev.ua>.

17 Electronnyy catalog. In Kyivska oblasna biblioteka dlya ditey [interactive]. Kyiv: Kyiv Regional Library for Children, [no date] [try to access 2020 April 08]. No access through Internet: <http://e-kobdd.pp.ua>. ERR_CONNECTION_RESET

18 Naydavnishi knygy yunogo chytacha. In Zaporizka oblasna biblioteka dlya ditey “Yunyy chytach” Zaporizkoi oblasnoi rady [interactive]. Zaporizhzhya: Zaporizhzhya Regional Library for Children, [no date] [accessed 2020 April 09]. Access through Internet: <http://zobd.zp.ua/nbook.html>.

19 Rare Editions. In V.O. SUKHOMLYNSKYI STATE SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL LIBRARY OF UKRAINE [interactive]. Kyiv: Sukhomlynskyi State Scientific and Pedagogical Library of Ukraine, 2015 [accessed 2020 April 09]. Access through Internet: <https://dnpb.gov.ua/en/rare-editions/>.

20 National property. In Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine [interactive]. Kyiv: Pedagogical Museum of Ukraine, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 09]. Access through Internet: <http://pmu.in.ua/natchionalne_nadbannya/national_treasure/>.

21 Zvedenyy catalog ukrainskoi knygy (1798–1923 rr.). … <http://ukr.catalogue.nlu.org.ua/>.

22 Collekcia “Ukrainska dytyacha knyga 1885–1923 rr.” Pedagogichnogo museyu Ukrainy. Kyiv, 2015, p. 16–44.

24 Collekcia “Ukrainska dytyacha knyga 1885-1923 rr.” Pedagogichnogo museyu Ukrainy ..., p. 69–142.

25 National Library of Ukraine named after VI Vernadsky [interactive]. Kyiv: Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 10]. Access through Internet: <www.nbuv.gov.ua>. The automatic Google translator on the Library website does not translate all the information and is not always correct. That’s why the whole name in English of this Library on the website is different than its official name.

26 CHILDREN’S AND YOUTH LITERATURE [interactive]. In Nacionalna biblioteka Ukrainy imeni VI Vernadskogo [interactive]. Kyiv: Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, 2020 [accessed 2020 April 10]. Access through Internet: <http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?I21DBN=RUBS&P21DBN=RUBS&S21STN=1&S21REF=10&S21FMT=rub_all&S21SRW=ind&S21SRD=UP&C21COM=S&S21CNR=10&S21P01=0&S21P02=0&S21P03=IR=&S21COLORTERMS=0&S21STR=%D0%A88>.

27 Nacionalna istorychna biblioteka Ukrainy [interactive]. Kyiv: National Historical Library of Ukraine, [no date] [accessed 2020 April 10]. Access through Internet: <https://nibu.kyiv.ua>.