Social Welfare: Interdisciplinary Approach <p>"Social Welfare: Interdisciplinary Approach" – recenzuojamas, atviros prieigos žurnalas, kuriame spausdinami originalūs moksliniai straipsniai, kritinės recenzijos, tyrimai, apimantys tarpdisciplinines socialinės, edukacinės, sveikatos, aplinkos ir kitų mokslų sritis. Tarpdiscipliniškumas yra žurnalo stiprybė.</p> en-US (Remigijus Bubnys) (Odeta Šapelytė) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Preface by Editor-in-Chief <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Dear authors, members of the editorial board, and readers of the scientific interdisciplinary journal&nbsp;<em>Social Welfare: Interdisciplinary Approach</em>. We present to you one more issue of the journal. As in previous issues, in the present issue, an interdisciplinary approach to social welfare in a national and intercultural context is important to us. In this issue, we present to your attention the works of scientists from three countries in one way or another related to social welfare, the concept of which is constructed and presented in three chapters:&nbsp;<em>Social Challenges</em>,&nbsp;<em>The Development of Professional Competences</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Disability Studies</em>. Going deeper into the presented scientific works, it can be seen that in many of them we can name social justice as the main idea. This scientific concept and the starting point of the formation of the concept of life has reached us from ancient times. All of us know Plato, Socrates’ disciple, and his ontological concept of justice related to a virtue of the soul. Justice for Plato is one of the major virtues that encompasses both state governance and human life in general. It can be argued that he saw the benefits of justice in the life of the state and the individual, including the idea that justice unites society (Plato, 2000<a href="">[1]</a>). Aristotle gives justice the meaning of redistribution and sharing. On the other hand, although Aristotle’s justice is restricted to Greek citizens, in any case, the idea of sharing, redistributing, offsetting was spread thanks to Aristotle (Aristotle, 1990<a href="">[2]</a>). Thomas Aquinas not only linked the Christian tradition to the teaching of Aristotle, but also further developed the idea of justice and emphasized the importance of transposing the idea into law (Aquinas, 2015<a href="">[3]</a>). Immanuel Kant developed a moral theory which, in the context of our days, is, in my view, an important duty as the strongest pillar of morality (Kant, 1987<a href="">[4]</a>). Without going into polemic about how much Immanuel Kant’s philosophy influenced John Rawls’ theory of social justice, I will quote the principles of justice defined by him: “a) each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar scheme of liberties for others; and in this scheme the equal political liberties, and only those liberties, are to be guaranteed their fair value. b) Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both: (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity” (Rawls, 2002, p. 61<a href="">[5]</a>). It can be said that Rawls’ idea that we will not achieve social welfare in the state until justice, including social justice, is ensured, has laid the foundations for a modern understanding of social justice. The dialectic of the concept of justice is also reflected in the works of our authors as the emphasis on justice as a value (Arūnas Acus, Liutauras Kraniauskas; Ilona Dobrovolskytė), the disclosure of the meaning of sharing (Jurgita Lenkauskaitė; Olga Kuprieieva, Tetiana Traverse, Liudmyla Serdiuk, Olena Chykhantsova, Oleksandr Shamych), the construct of the concept of law (Daiva Malinauskienė, Aistė Igorytė; Ingrida Baranauskienė, Alla Kovalenko, Inna Leonova), the understanding of a theory of civic morality, a duty that is a pillar of morality (Svitlana Kravchuk; Elena Kuftyak; Asta Volbikienė, Remigijus Bubnys; Simas Garbenis, Renata Geležinienė, Greta Šiaučiulytė). And it does not matter at all whether this is analyzed in the context of social challenges, disability studies or professional competences. It can be stated that the idea of social justice is the driving force behind the scientific works of this journal.</p> <p>Wishing everyone to stay healthy, both physically and spiritually, I place social justice as a fundamental value in these turbulent times of a global pandemic. But life does not stand still, so we look forward to your new research works. There will be no us without you.</p> Ingrida Baranauskienė Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Approaching the end of post - soviet transition? Trends of youth crime in Klaipėda in 2005-2019 <p>The article presents a sociological and criminological analysis of data on registered youth criminal offences (young people of 14-29 years old) in Klaipėda. The analysed period covers the years from 2005 to 2019 (late post-Soviet period).&nbsp; It includes youth crime offences and persons suspected of committing a crime. The period is characterised by a constant downward trend in crime. There were no substantial changes in criminal law during this period, however, Lithuania significantly strengthened the legal and material background for work with juveniles and young adults.&nbsp; On the basis of the insights of the theories of anomie, social control and ecological criminology, the article analyses the key indicators of youth crime and its dynamics. The changes by age and employment of persons who have allegedly committed criminal offences are analysed.</p> Liutauras Kraniauskas | Arūnas Acus Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Willingness to forgiveness as a predictor of mental health and psychological resilience of displaced persons from the zone of military conflict in Eastern Ukraine <p>The article is devoted to the problem the characteristics of willingness to forgiveness in displaced persons from the conflict zone. The concepts of forgiveness and psychological resilience are considered. The article examines the characteristics of willingness to forgiveness as a predictor of mental health and psychological resilience of displaced persons from the conflict zone.</p> <p>The presented findings should be taken into account by persons offering professional support for such group of persons.</p> Svitlana Leontivna Kravchuk Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological defenses and coping strategies in preschool children: sex differences and relationship with psychological health <p>The article represents the research, analysed the reviewing of defensive mechanisms and coping strategies in the context of the mental health of pre-school children of different gender. The results obtained through study point to differentiation of psychological defence and coping strategies mechanisms based on gender and the condition of mental health. It is revealed that mentally healthy pre-school age children prefer to use effective and socially upheld coping-strategies, which reduce the pressure through socially upheld behaviour patterns (e.g., through the decent “children’s activity” – play, walk and etc.). &nbsp;Mentally healthy girls more often focus on overcome the difficulties within themselves. Boys, who have emotional symptoms, as usual prefer the destructive emotional expression strategy, that lets to ease the tension. Boys with the low level of anxiety are oriented to the passive distraction, while girls focus on the social contacts. &nbsp;Received results can be used for development of psychological prevention of mental health offences programmes</p> Elena Kuftyak Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Professional experiences of on-call specialists in the field of violations of children’s rights <p>The article analyses the content of the activity of child rights protection on-call specialists, their experiences related to the representation of the child and his/her interests. In Lithuania, this position is new and it emerged after the reform of the child rights protection system, which was caused by the increase in cases of violence against children, which resulted in their death several times. The activity of on-call specialists is focused on making quick decisions in response to reports of violations of children’s rights in the family and society.</p> <p>Qualitative research revealed the experience of on-call specialists in relation to the assessments of violations of children’s rights in daily activities and the reactions of parents/ guardians to the assistance provided by on-call specialists.</p> Daiva Malinauskienė | Aistė Igorytė Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The social-psychological factors influencing women-prisoners’ feeling of loneliness <div> <p>The article presents the study on the factors influencing appearance of loneliness at female prisoners. The results obtained indicate that loneliness is caused not only by subjective factors, such as personal traits, needs, motives, but also by an objective factor - the socially closed structure of detention places and the limited environment there. The main subjective reasons for female prisoners’ feelings of loneliness are despair, fears, depression and aggression, caused by their inability to satisfy their needs for communication, safety, personal development and goal achievement.</p> The feeling of loneliness appears because the influence of the following factors: personal traits, insufficient interpersonal relationships, fear of rejection, subjective and objective causes</div> Ingrida Baranauskienė | Alla Kovalenko | Inna Leonova Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Service-learning in problem solving in the community: pre-service teachers’ reflection on their experience <p>The article substantiates the relevance of service-learning in the study process of pre-service teachers solving problems relevant to the community. The multifaceted benefits of service-learning for both learners and the community have been highlighted. Pre-service teachers treat the service-learning experience as unique, allowing them to get closely acquainted with professional reality, develop collaboration outside the university, understand the importance of change in education in response to the needs of society and the extent of their responsibility for this change.&nbsp;</p> Jurgita Lenkauskaitė Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of students’ lived experiences in music school: where does the meaning of learning hide? <p>This qualitative research discloses students’ subjective lived experiences in Lithuanian music school; thus, creating assumptions for implementing meaningful learning in children’s education.&nbsp;<em>Music schools</em>&nbsp;which dominate other non-formal education are not exempted because students’ lived experiences show that learning is given meaning there even before the commencement of formal learning. When formal learning starts, the perception of meaningfulness of learning begins to change. Results demonstrate that usually opposite experiences of those things which are expected are gained after students start learning, and that continuous communication between students and teachers in music schools is an&nbsp;<em>antidote</em>&nbsp;against meaningless teaching and learning.</p> Asta Volbikienė | Remigijus Bubnys Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fundamental assumptions as predictors of psychological hardiness of students with disabilities <div> <p>The article describes the psychological study determining the factors that support fundamental assumptions of students with disabilities. We have determined correlations between psychological hardiness of students with disabilities and their system of fundamental assumptions; beliefs in the benevolence of the surrounding world and people, in the meaningfulness of some events, in a chance to build successfully one’s own life and in one’s own luck have a significant influence on psychological hardiness. The predictors of psychological hardiness of students with disabilities are: positive interactions with the outside world; self-acceptance as a conscious acceptance of various aspects of one’s own personality; personal autonomy, which allows an individual to independently determine their own behaviour, assess adequately their capabilities and resist external influences.</p> </div> Olga Kuprieieva | Tetiana Traverse | Liudmyla Serdiuk | Olena Chykhantsova | Oleksandr Shamych Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of emotional intelligence in students with special educational needs <p>The aim of the study is to analyse teachers’ opinion about the development of emotional intelligence in students who have special educational needs in inclusive schools. The method of the questionnaire survey was chosen to achieve the research aim. The study employed two developed questionnaires based on the principle of&nbsp;<em>Likert&nbsp;</em>scale (1-5). The questionnaires were developed for teachers according to the parts of the structure of trait emotional intelligence for students aged 7 to 12 and 13 to 17 years. Questionnaires potentially reveal teachers’ opinion about several aspects of emotional intelligence development: how and how often teachers assess, organize targeted and non-targeted educational activities for individual parts of the structure of students’ emotional intelligence and promote awareness of their importance. After conducting the research, it was found that the development of parts of the structure of emotional intelligence was carried out differently depending on students’ age. Differences were recorded both between the developed parts of the structure and between applied educational activities. Both statistically significant and insignificant research data were obtained and it was found that the development of emotional intelligence for younger students was more oriented to their inner self-knowledge; while for older students, to the aspects of socialization.&nbsp;</p> Simas Garbenis | Renata Geležinienė | Greta Šiaučiulytė Autorių teisių (c) 2020 Authors Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000