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2019, vol. 10, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15388/Verb.8

The Equivalents of theVerbs of Activity in the Spanish Translation of “Metai” (“The Seasons”) by Kristijonas Donelaitis

Agnė Lisauskaitė
Vilnius University, University 5, Vilnius
agne.lisauskaite@flf.vu.lt
Research interests: lexical semantics, academic language, diachronic lexicology, Spanish language, translation

Summary. The equivalence of translation has become a concern for many Lithuanian researchers. The term equivalence is described in the monograph “Contrastive Semantics” (2007) by AloyzasGudavičius. LionginasPažūsis (2014) discusses problems that arise from the lack of equivalence at word level. There are many articles on approaches or strategies of equivalence (D. Masaitienė 1996; A. Leonavičienė 2010; L. Černiuvienė 2013). Some scholars choose to examine the strategies applied in the translation of some linguistic items in novels (V. Končius& A. Nausėda 2006; C. Caro Dugo 2010, 2014, 2015, 2016; A. Cerri; I. Janavičienė 2016). However, there is a lack of research that analyses the Spanish translation of the poem “Metai” or a particular linguistic aspect of this Spanish text. Recent years saw several attempts to fill this gap(C. Caro Dugo 2014, 2015, 2016; A. Cerri 2015). The current research aims to examine the equivalents of the verbs of activity (VAs) in the Spanish translation of the poem. The paper focuses only on those VAs that express actions performed by persons. The VAs which denote actions performed by other living beings or forces of nature were excluded. The research covers 52 verses with verbs of activity, selected from the poem, and their equivalents in the translation into Spanish, which are subjected to qualitative content analysis and means ofcomparative methodology. 52 constructions that express the concepts of Work, Damaging, Speakon topic, Motion, Ingestion and Entertainment were selected applying the qualitative content analysis. The Spanish equivalents of these constructions are examined through the comparative methodology. The obtained results indicated that the translator is faithful to the original text. In order to preserve the expressiveness of the poem, the Spanish translation uses an abundance of verbal lexemes. It was noticed that the equivalents of the same meaning or verbs with a more general meaning specified by an additional lexeme or construction were the main strategies adopted in VA translation into Spanish. In one case only was a Lithuanian verb changed into a Spanish noun. Idioms and figurative words were also chosen as a VA translation strategy in several instances. Nonetheless, all of these lexemes, as derivative of verbs or verbal forms, preserve the verbal nature.This workshould be useful tothe semanticists and translators.

Keywords: activity, equivalents, Spanish, translation, verb.

Copyright © 2020 Agnė Lisauskaitė. Published by Vilnius University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Article submitted 26-02-2019. Accepted 20-12-2019

Agnė Lisauskaitė was awarded a Bachelor’s degreein Philology at Vilnius University in 2017. In 2019, she receivedaMaster’s degree in Humanities at Vilnius university with the thesis titled A diachronic approach to Lithuanian posture and motion verbs. Later that year,she became PhD student at the Department of Lithuanian Language, Vilnius University.

Introduction

The current paper focuses on the equivalents of the verbs of activity (VAs) in the Spanish translation of the first Lithuanian poem “Metai” (“The Seasons”) by Kristijonas Donelaitis. The aim of the research is to examine the equivalents which were found in the translation of the poem. The following objectives were identified to achieve the aim:

1. To select the VAs which are used in the original Lithuanian version of the poem, as well as their equivalents in the translation into Spanish (“Las estaciones del año” translated by Carmen Caro Dugo, 2013).

2. To analyse the strategies of equivalence which were adopted in the translation process of the VAs.

The equivalence of translation has become a concern for many Lithuanian researchers. The term equivalence is discussed in the monograph “Contrastive Semantics” (2007) by Aloyzas Gudavičius. In this study, Gudavičius proposes strategies for the comparison of structural units of language. In his monograph “Language and translation” (2014), Lionginas Pažūsis, addresses problems that arise from the lack of equivalence at word level, such as difficulties translating culture-specific items or proper names. The current study deals with translational transformations, i.e., shift, addition, and omission. There is a considerable body of research analysing various approaches or types of translation equivalence. For example, Dalia Masaitienė (1996) and Liucija Černiuvienė (2013) introduced formal and dynamic/pragmatic equivalence. Černiuvienė (2013) also presented denotative, connotative, and text normative types of equivalence. Aurelija Leonavičienė (2010) briefly overviewed about the theories of equivalence and focused on the text normative translation equivalence in Romain Gary’s “A European Education”. Vytenis Končius and Aurimas Nausėda (2006) examined the ways of compensating semantic inadequacy in the Lithuanian translation of the novel “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerome K. Jerome. Some linguists choose to examine the strategies applied in the translation of some specific linguistic items in novels. For instance, Carmen Caro Dugo (2010) compared two Spanish translations of the novel “The Forest of the Gods” by Balys Sruoga, directing attention to the translator’s search for appropriate and expressive words, the translation of idioms and other expressive phrases and diminutives. Inga Janavičienė (2016) analyses particularities and techniques of transferring culture-specific items that Silvija Lomsargytė-Pukienė employs in her translation of O. Henry’s short stories from English into Lithuanian. However, there is a lack of research that examines Spanish translation of the poem “Metai”. Recent years saw several attempts to fill this gap. Caro Dugo (2014) examined the Spanish gerund, as well as other means, that was used to translate Lithuanian active adverbial participles in the part “Summer Toils” of the poem. In another article, Caro Dugo (2016) investigated various means that were adopted to translate the concepts of beating, drunkenness and cursing in the translation of “Metai” into Spanish and English. She also analysed the means employed to convey the meanings denoted by the Lithuanian diminutive suffixes in the Spanish version of the first part of “Metai”, as well as in both English translations of the poem (Caro Dugo 2015). Some studies aimed to examine translation strategies which were used to translate proper names in Donelaitis’ poem (Cerri 2015): 10 different translations of the poem were analysed, including the Spanish translation. However, the strategies followed in the Spanish translation of Lithuanian VAs, which are widely used in the original of the poem[1], have never been targeted before.

In this research, 52 constructions with VAs, which best represent the concepts of Work, Damaging, Speak on topic, Motion, Ingestion, and Entertainment, were selected applying the qualitative linguistic analysis. Respectively, the equivalents of these constructions were found in the Spanish translation of the poem and examined applying the comparative methodology.

As regards the data for the investigation, two sources were analysed. The examples of the VAs were taken from the first Lithuanian poem “Metai” by Kristijonas Donelaitis, (first published in 1818 by Liudvikas Rėza) in volume 1 of Donelaitis’ “Writings” (2015), which contains documentary and critical editions of the poem “Metai”. The second source, in which the equivalents of the VAs were found, was the Spanish translation of Kristijonas Donelaitis’ “Metai” (2013) by Carmen Caro Dugo. The current paper focuses on the equivalents of VAs in the Spanish translation of the first Lithuanian poem “Metai” (“The Seasons”) by Kristijonas Donelaitis.

Theoretical background of the research

This paper investigates the equivalents of VAs in the translation of the poem “Metai”. According to the Lithuanian Grammar, the VA[2]can denote the following: physical actions, which may be objectless (e.g. eiti‘to go/to walk’, bėgti‘to run’, dirbti‘to work’) or directed at an object (e.g. nešti (vaiką)‘to carry (a child)’, statyti (namus)‘to build (a house)’, valgyti (košę)‘to eat (porridge)’), and social and mental activities (e.g. pirkti‘to buy’, susitikti 'to meet’, skaityti‘to read’, galvoti‘to think (about)’) (Ambrazas 1997, p. 221).Aldona Paulauskienė distinguishes two verbal classes: verbs that denote states of the Agent and verbs that indicate actions or activities performed by the Agent. The latter class is divided into two subclasses: a) verbs that express object-oriented action (dirbti‘to work’, siūti‘to sew’); b) verbs that show object-unoriented action (eiti‘to go’, bėgti‘to run’) (Paulauskienė 1994, p. 262). Many transitive verbs constitute the semantic class of action performed by the Agent because all these activities could be understood as the reconstruction, creation, and destruction of the material world (Paulauskienė 1994, p. 286).

While analysing transitive and intransitive verbs, Artūras Judžentis indicates that transitive verbs mean actions or some activities, whereas intransitive verbs denote states or spontaneous processes. Transitive verbs mostly refer to forceful and purposeful actions performed by persons or other living beings. Forces of nature are also considered to be active (Judžentis 2012, p. 212–214).

In one of his articles, Piotr Arkadjev argues that Lithuanian primary verbs fall into inflectional classes based on semantics. He proceeds to discuss some VAs and classify them into semantic classes. For example, Lithuanian VAs, such as skersti‘to butcher’ and trypti‘to tread’, mark purposive actions which are performed by the Agent and undergone by Patient (Arkadjev 2008, p. 10). Arkadjev also sets the semantic class of Motion. Motion verbs can be divided into subclasses of uncontrolled motion (plūsti‘to flow’, sklisti‘to spread’), motion of undetermined control (kilti‘to rise’) and controlled motion (bristi‘to wade’, skristi‘to fly’) (Arkadjev 2008, p. 8). VAs (either transitive or intransitive) discussed in Arkadjev’s publication belong to the class of j-verbs. These verbs can be opposed to stative verbs and convey alternation and environmental reconstruction in their meaning.

In the mid-20th century, Zeno Vendler (1967) presented the semantic classification of predicates. According to the current classification, all predicates of a language may be classified into actionality classes (Plungian 2010, p. 103). Vendler distinguishes four types of predicates: states, activities, accomplishments and achievements (Holvoet, Čižik 2004, p. 146). All except predicates of states are relevant to this research. The class of activities involves an Agent, but it does not have a natural endpoint (vaikščioti‘to walk’, išdykauti‘to romp’, etc.). The predicates of accomplishments denote purposeful actions, these verbs have a natural endpoint or culmination, and a component of alternation (rašyti‘to write’, dažyti‘to paint’, etc.). Part of the verbs analysed in this paper can be regarded as predicates of achievements. These predicates presuppose change but it occurs instantaneously (rasti‘to find’, pasiklysti‘to get lost’) (Holvoet, Čižik 2004, p. 147).

The current research focuses only on those VAs that express actions performed by persons. One subclass of the VAs, social and mental activities, represented in the Lithuanian Grammar was excluded from the current paper. This subclass does not express the component of activity explicitly, therefore, it may constitute an intermediate type between stative verbs and VAs.

Since the object of the current paper are the equivalents in the translation, the term equivalent should be clarified. According to Evalda Jakaitienė, there are several types of equivalents. Some equivalents wholly correspond to the original in meaning, some – partially. Other equivalents only explain the concept expressed in the source-language. Sometimes zero equivalents are also set apart as a type on their own (Jakaitienė 2005, p. 24).

Another important concept is equivalence. This term is widely used in the theory of translation and in contrastive semantics. FollowingMasaitienė, equivalence is the relationship that holds between the original text (or text elements) and translated text (or text elements), when the content, form, style, function, etc. of the original text are maintained in the translated text (Masaitienė 1996, p. 79). Eugene A. Nida, the founder of the modern discipline of translation studies, was one of the first scholars to create the model of translation process. He developed two translation approaches, formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence. Formal equivalence is concerned with reproducing “as literally and meaningfully as possible the form and content of the original”. In this kind of translation, the translator gives the reader the opportunity to identify himself with people in the source-language world and to know their customs, manner of thought and means of expression (Nida 1964, p. 159). Dynamic equivalence, on the other hand, is a translation which reflects the meaning and intent of the source and has correspondence with the target language and culture as its essential element (Nida 1964, p. 166–167).

Analysing translation, the source and target texts are divided into separate units called translation units. These units are segments that should correspond in source and target texts in form and meaning. A lexeme, expression, sentence, paragraph or even an entire text can function as a translation unit (Masaitienė 1996, p. 81). Analysing translation units through the lens of lexical semantics, Gudavičius asserts that, since the semantic system is composed of subsystems and the latter – of elements, the object of comparison should be subsystems, and, to be more precise, their elements. Following this approach, Gudavičius distinguishes three units of the lexical system: the sememe, the word, and the semantic class, which respectively function as structural units of comparison (Gudavičius 2007, p. 67).

Some languages, especially analytic ones, often express more abstract meanings while synthetic languages are defined by concrete meanings (Pažūsis 2014, p. 502). Gudavičius, also, notices that these two aspects of meaning are the essential feature of the semantic system. In some languages, there is an evident tendency to favour either more specific or more concrete meanings. The Lithuanian language is an example of a concrete language. The late language standardization and close relationship with dialects determined the concrete nature of the Lithuanian lexicon (Gudavičius 2007, p. 78–79). The poem “Metai” supports this claim. The dynamism and figurativeness of the poem is rooted in an abundant use of verbs. These verbs precisely define actions and sometimes even encode an attitude toward an Agent (Pikčilingis 1971, p. 166).

As studies clearly show, the verb is the central category in the Lithuanian language (Pikčilingis 1971, p. 167). According to Caro Dugo, the translator of the poem “Metai”, the Spanish language is prone to substantivization. In other words, verbs are used with lower frequency in Spanish than in Lithuanian. Thus, verbal constructions tend to be replaced by nominal ones in translation. Since maintaining dynamism and vitality of the poem was a goal the translator set for herself, verbal constructions were used with higher frequency in the Spanish translation of the poem than it would be expected.

1. Analysis of the equivalents of the verbs of activity in Spanish translation of the poem

This paper reports on the Spanish constructions which are used to convey meanings of Lithuanian VAs.

1.1. Verbs of the Work concept

Lithuanian VAs which express the concept of Work are mostly translated into verbal constructions in the Spanish version of the poem. There was one case where a verbal construction was translated as a participial construction and once the verb užarti‘to plow’ was not translated at all.

Table 1. Verbs of Work. Equivalents with similar meanings.

Translation

Original

(1) con iras infernales apremia a trabajar Lv 120

‘By all the devils calls on them to work’ St 120

Sù wiſſais Welnais Sʒeimyną rágina dirbti[3] Vd 120

(2) Los campos fríos, cuya blanda espalda / surcamos en verano, donde echamos el grano faenando Ai 615–616

‘We ploughed and at a run sprinkled with seed’ Wc 616

Wásarą rėżėm ìr grudeliùs bėginėdami bàrstėm Žr 616

(3) y por qué cada año con el mayal arrea así la mies? Bo 682

‘And why each year he threshes as he does’ Ab 682

`Ir dėl kó jis taìp kasméts su sprágilu daùżia Rg 682

(4) Cuando lo enciendes y el potaje guisas Ai 213

‘When you sit by the chimney breast and bake’ Wc 213

Kàd, pasikúręs ję, kukliùs ar sziùpinį wérdi Žr 213

(5) y en el fogón los mete para cocer el pan! Ai 205

‘For baking bread or drying something out.’ Wc 205

Důną kèpt ar ką dzowįt, į kákalį kìsza! Žr 205

(6) El cocinero asó para las bodas Bo 146

‘Was roasted then so well by Krizas’ cook’ Ab 147

Krìzo kùkorius taip smàrkey plészkino swódbai Rg 147

(7) cuando en invierno ensilla los jamelgos para ir a birlar Bo 574

‘In winter when he harnesses the jades’ Ab 574

`Ir kad żëmą jìs ką wógt kuinùs pasikìnko Rg 574

(8) Aseó, sobre todo, Hansen a su tordillo Bo 93

‘Enskys took special pains: he washed the grey’ Ab 93

Ypaczey ìsz wisú Enskýs sawo szìmelį praùsė Rg 93

(9) También Catrine y Brida refrotan la sartén Bo 73

‘Katrynė, Bergė scrub the frying pan’ Ab 73

Bèt Katrýnė sù Bergè skaurádą szurůja Rg 73

(10) para aliviar al pobre y curar sus heridas Bo 754

‘To treat his wounds and help Dočys revive.’ Ab 754

Dóczį wėl gaiwįt ir gýdyt, àtneszė greìtay Rg 754

(11) pues la hacendosa Aste guisa para el almuerzo un gran capón Bo 80

‘For Astė’s braising a fat cock for lunch’ Ab 80

Nės Astė pëtùms nupenėtą szùtina gaìdį Rg 80

(12) y todas acudieron a curar y vendar / las heridas del pobre Dochís con los ungüentos preparados Bo 760–761

‘Their special ointments and to dress his wounds.’ Ab 761

Móstyt tů ir jó żaizdàs aptwért susirìnko Rg 761

Table 1 reveals that the majority of the VAs retain their meaning and form (verbs are translated as verbs) in the Spanish version of the poem. For example, in (1) the original verbal form dirbti ‘to work’[4] is translated using a neutral Spanish word trabajar ‘to work’. In cases where verbs in the original have some semantic peculiarities, the translator chooses lexemes with similar semantic content. As example (6) indicates, the verb plészkino ‘roasted (third-person singular)’ expresses intensive action using fire. In the Spanish translation, a lexeme asó ‘roasted/grilled (third-person singular)’, which also indicates the object’s change at high temperature, i.e., cooking (food) by direct heat, is used. The verb szurůja ‘scrub (third-person plural)’ (9), found in the original, means intensive action which is directed to the surface of an object in order to eliminate dirt from it. Correspondingly, a Spanish verb refrotan ‘scrub quickly (third-person plural)’ is adopted in the translation. The prefix of the verb, re-, indicates intensity and the verb frotar ‘to scrub’ fully corresponds to the Lithuanian lexeme šuruoti ‘to scrub’.

Table 2. Verbs of Work. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning + specifying lexemes/expressions).

Translation

Original

(13) a acarrear estiércol, y a echarlo por la tierra y a esparcir el generoso grano Bo 358

‘To cart and scatter dung, to plough and sow,’ Ab 358

Mėszlą wèszt, użkrėst, użárt, grudeliùs barstýti Rg 358

(14) y su asqueroso prado trabajó / con una hoz, a gatas y gimiendo Lv 469–470

‘With just a sickle, puffing on all fours.’ St St 470

Sʒnybźdams ir replinėdams wiſſ ſù Piáutuwu kirto Vd 470

(15) Por tanto, cada vez que te hagas un guiso Ai 228

‘Therefore remember, when you’re making soup’ Wc 228

Taìgi newéngk, żmogaù, kassýk, kad wìralą wérdi Žr 228

(16) y ya tuvimos / con que hacernos un plato suculento Lv 675–676

‘We boiled and fried more appetizingly’ St 676

„O més tů gardźey ką wirt’ ir kèpt praſimánėm’ Vd 676

(17) en la cocina abierta, pues quería saber que refinados guisos preparaban Bo 276

‘To see what tasty morsels there might be’ Ab 276

Įlindaù pażiurėt, kokiùs ten szùtina kąsnius Rg 276

(18) pasado, cuando echabas de comer a los cerdos de Bláber Gp 260

‘Your herded goats and pigs for Bleberis’ Sj 261

Ôſʒkas ir Kiaulès glupàs pàs Blebberį ſʒėrei Pl 261

Examples (13–18) illustrate the translation strategy of using a verb of more general meaning together with a lexeme or expression which specifies it. Following examples (15–17), the verbs used in the original convey specific meanings, i.e., the verbs wérdi/wirt’ ‘are boiling (second-person singular)/to boil’, kèpt ‘to fry’, szùtina ‘are stewing (third-person plural)’ all indicate specific ways to prepare food, while in the Spanish translation, equivalents of more general meaning are chosen. Spanish verbs such as te hagas ‘you make for yourself’, hacernos ‘to make for ourselves’, preparaban ‘prepared (third-person plural)’ are specified with the nouns un guiso ‘stew’, un plato ‘dish’, guisos ‘stews’ of the semantic field of food preparation. In (14), the Lithuanian verb kirto ‘puffed (third-person singular)’[5], which conveys the action of opening, dividing by using a sharp tool or object, is translated into a neutral Spanish verb trabajó ‘worked (third-person singular)’. The latter verb covers a very wide range of works, but here is specified with a construction con una hoz ‘with sickle’, which refers to a sharp object. Thus, the construction (abstract verb + prepositional phrase) as a whole indicates the action of cutting.

Table 3. Verbs of Work. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning).

Translation

Original

(19) y todas acudieron a curar y vendar / las heridas del pobre Dochís con los ungüentos preparados Bo 760–761

‘Their special ointments and to dress his wounds.’ Ab 761

Móstyt tů ir jó żaizdàs aptwért susirìnko Rg 761

In (19), the Spanish VA curar ‘to heal’ has more general meaning and expresses the process of recovery when all kind of remedies could be used to regain initial condition. In contrast, the Lithuanian verb Móstyt ‘to apply cream or oil’ specifies the remedies used in the process of curing, i.e., wounds are treated with cream or oil.

Table 4. Verbs of Work. Lithuanian VAs expressed by figurative words.

Translation

Original

(20) y asombra escuchar cómo las viejas golpetean las cazuelas Bo 70

‘And frightening the way they rattle pots’ Ab 70

`Ir baisù klausýt, kad bóbos társzkina půdus Rg 70

There was one case (20), in which the VA which expresses the concept of Work was translated with a word used figuratively. The equivalent which implies a sound was adopted in the Spanish translation. This choice is motivated by the figurative verb társzkina‘rattle (third-person plural)’ in the original, which metonymically indicates the action of cooking through the sound of rattled pots. According to “New Grammar of the Spanish Language” (spa. “Nueva gramática de la lengua española”), the affix -etear in the verb golpetear‘to tap’ conveys the meaning of iterative action and, thus, provides the action with intensity.

Table 5. Verbs of Work. Lithuanian VAs expressed by participial constructions.

Translation

Original

(21) y guisantes también, cocidos con alubias Bo 416

‘The peas with beans you simmer in a pot’ Ab 416

Żìrnei, kàd su pùpoms jůs iszszùtini půde Rg 416

In (21), the expression jůs (refers to Żìrnei, kàd su pùpoms‘the peas with beans’) iszszùtini‘simmer (second-person singular)’ is translated as a construction of past participle guisantes [...] cocidos ‘cooked peas’. The past participle cocido functions as an adjective referring to the finished action. Nevertheless, the participle is characterized by its verbal nature.

Table 6. Verbs of Work. Equivalents with differing meanings.

Translation

Original

(22) cuando nuestras cazuelas podamos alegrar con alimentos frescos Ai 659

‘When we can put fresh food in pots to stew.’ Wc 659

`Ir szwëżiùs walgiùs į půdus kráudami wìrsim. Žr 659

(23) Cuando Catrina teje adormilada Lv 628

‘Katryna spinning on a winter night’ St 628

Żıemą, kàd Wakarais Katryna ſnáuſdama werpja Vd 628

In some cases, equivalents of different semantics are used. In (22), the future tense verb wìrsim‘will stew’ is translated into a construction podamos alegrar ‘we can rejoice’, which contains a conjugated verb and infinitive. Food preparation is interpreted as a process provoking excitement. The conjugated form of the construction is in subjunctive which, as in the original, refers to a future event. The Spanish verse (23) adopts the VA teje ‘weaves (third-person singular)’, which refers to the process of fabrics’ forming, while, in the original, the verb werpja ‘spins (third-person singular)’ denotes technique where the fiber is drawn out, twisted and wound.

1.2. Verbs of the Damaging concept

It was observed that VAs which evoke the concept of Damaging are mainly translated adopting verbal equivalents.

Table 7. Verbs of Damaging. Equivalents with similar meanings.

Translation

Original

(24) ¿tiene algo de extraño que al criado machaque? Lv 203

‘No wonder serfs are trampled in the mire’ St 203

Ar Dywaì, kàd Búrą jis jau wiſſą ſuėda? Vd 203

(25) Cuando Machís o Juan le quitan el machete a un compañero Ai 198

‘Dočys taking a knife from Mykolas’ Wc 198

Kàd Doczýs ar Jóns Mikólui pàwagia stùngį Žr 198

(26) Pues hurtar, engañar, expoliar y usurpar Bo 873

‘To thieve, deceive, to plunder, take by force’ Ab 873

Wógt, klastůt, iszplėszt ir sù gwoltù pasisáwįt Rg 873

In the Spanish translation, most equivalents convey similar meanings to the original expressions and preserve their original form of verbs. Figurative verbs are used in both the source and the target texts. In the Spanish verse of the poem (24), the translator chooses to use the lexeme machaque ‘would crush (third-person singular)’, which figuratively indicates the action of beating another person as the primary meaning of this VA supposes that the Patient, or the referent that suffers some changes of its form, is an inanimate object. For example, this predicate may be used in the context of food preparation (e.g., mashing of herbs or garlic). Correspondingly, in the Lithuanian version of the poem, the primary meaning of the VA ſuėda is ‘eats (perfective)’, but in this context the verb metaphorically refers to the beating. In (25), the original verb pàwagia ‘take from (third-person plural, perfective)’ is translated as quitan ‘take away (third-person plural)’. The Spanish verb refers to property damage when there is no violence or force involved or rather to an action of taking something without permission or legal right. The Spanish lexeme quitan is a more neutral synonym of the widely used verb robar ‘to steal’. The latter implies property damage involving violence and force whereas the former is not necessarily used in the context of stealing something.

Table 8. Verbs of Damaging. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning + specifying lexemes/expressions).

Translation

Original

(27) Y al comisario tales puñetazos, / le dio Ai 459

‘He boxed the constable’s ears too so hard’ Wc 459

Bèt ir wákmistrui taip smàrkey mùszė per aùsį Žr 459

As the example (27) shows, the original verb mùszė ‘boxed (third-person singular)’ is translated into a binary construction puñetazos, / le dio ‘punched him (third-person singular)’. The typical Spanish word order (here – le dio puñetazos) is disregarded in order to maintain the original versification. Abstract in meaning, dio ‘gave (third-person singular)’ is specified by the noun puñetazos ‘punches’.

Table 9. Verbs of Damaging. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning).

Translation

Original

(28) Sobre todo a Dochís lo brumaron de forma tan brutal Bo 745

‘Dočys was crushed so badly – in a trough’ Ab 745

Ypaczey Dóczį taìp neswëtiszkay pagadìno Rg 745

(29) abusan del labriego, esquilándole lana Ai 371

‘Who always want more money, fleece farm folk.’ Wc 371

Búrą, wìs pinįgú daugiaùs norėdami, lùpa. Žr 371

There was a case where the translator chose a more general Spanish word than the one found in the original version of the poem. In the given example (28), the source verb pagadìno ‘crushed (third-person plural, perfective)’, which denotes physical damage directed toward the person or the inanimate object, is used. However, in the translation, the equivalent is a more general Spanish lexeme brumaron ‘oppressed (third-person plural)’, because it can refer either to both the physical and psychological/emotional damaging. The Lithuanian figurative verb lùpa ‘fleece (third-person plural, imperfective)’ (29) is translated into a verb with general meaning abusan ‘abuse (third-person plural)’. The latter lexeme encompasses many forms of violence and damaging.

Table 10. Verbs of Damaging. Lithuanian VAs expressed by figurative words/idioms.

Translation

Original

(30) una vara: midiendo las costillas al Poltrón y al Lechuzo Bo 255

‘Lambasted Slunkius’ and Pelėda’s flanks’ Ab 255

Slùnkiaus ìrgi Pelėdos szónus skàlbti pradėjo Rg 255

(31) le calentaba bien las posaderas Gp 264

‘A lash, as headmen should, and tanned your arse?’ Sj 264

Sù Botagù, kaip Sʒulcui reik’, tawo Strėngalį dróźė? Pl 264

In (30), the figurative verb skàlbti‘to lambaste’, which literally means ‘to wash’,is translated using an idiom with the same meaning midiendo las costillas ‘to beat’. The example (31) shows that seeking to preserve the figurativeness of the construction the verb dróźė ‘beat up (third-person singular, imperfective)’, the direct meaning of which indicates an action of making some object sharp, is translated choosing a figurative Spanish verb with the same meaning calentaba ‘beat up (third-person singular)’, which literally means to ‘heat up’.

1.3. Verbs of the Speak of topic concept

Most verbs, which evoke this concept, are translated as verbs in the Spanish version of the poem. There was only one case where the verb was changed into a noun in the translation.

Table 11. Verbs of Speak on topic. Equivalents with similar meanings.

Translation

Original

(32) y muchos, ya tan roncos, no podían ni hablar Ai 506

‘Many grew hoarse then could not speak at all.’ Wc 506

Ó daugùms, użkìmęs jaù, kalbėt negalėjo. Žr 506

As Table 11 shows, the verb of neutral meaning kalbėt‘to speak’ (32) is translated as hablar ‘to talk/to speak’, which is similar in that it does not convey any stylistic shades of meaning.

Table 12. Verbs of Speak on topic. Lithuanian VAs expressed by nominal constructions.

Translation

Original

(33) Sabes que las mujeres no pueden evitar el parloteo Bo 216

‘You know how women will exaggerate’ Ab 216

Jùk żinaì, kaip daùg pliuszkėt gal móteru búdas Rg 216

The expressive Lithuanian word pliuszkėt‘to exaggerate’(33) is translated into a noun el parloteo ‘chit chat’ related to everyday speech. The strategy to choose a colloquial lexeme allows the translator to preserve the figurativeness and even reveal an attitude towards the Agent of the Speaking situation.

Table 13. Verbs of Speak on topic. Equivalents with differing meanings.

Translation

Original

(34) «Tú –le replica Frico–, guárdate de metertecon Gaspar Ai 402

‘”Beaware of Kasparas,” said Pričkus. “Keep’ Wc 402

Tù, tarė Prìczkus jám, saugókis Kàsparą kìbįt Žr 402

(35) y después en la cuna soñando pide ayuda Bo 453

‘Then, dreaming in their cradle, call for help.’ Ab 453

`Ir potám lopszýj sapnůdams szaùkia pagálbos Rg 453

There were two instances where the meanings in the source and target texts were slightly different. In the original, the verb tarė ‘said (third-person singular)’ (34) differs in meaning from the Spanish word replica ‘answers back (third-person singular)’. The verb szaùkia ‘calls (third-person singular)’ (35) refers to an intensive action where the Agent raises his voice. From this point of view, the Lithuanian verb differs from its neutral equivalent pide ‘requests (third-person singular)’ in Spanish.

1.4. Verbs of the Motion concept

All of the equivalents of the Motion situation preserve their verbal nature in the Spanish translation.

Table 14. Verbs of Motion. Equivalents with similar meanings.

Translation

Original

(36) pero corre veloz a la taberna, bebe y arma trifulcas Ai 163

‘Yet off to brawl in pubs he’ll gladly race’ Wc 163

Ó taczaùs linksmaý nusipèszt į kàrczemą bėga Žr 163

(37) traquetean con todos al trabajo Lv 157

‘Went rattling down the track with others too.’ St 157

Sù kittais Baudźáuninkais į Baudźawą tarſʒkė Vd 157

The verb bėga‘runs (third-person singular)’ (36) has a similar equivalent corre ‘runs (third-person singular)’ in the Spanish text. Following the example (37), the original verb tarſʒkė ‘rattled (third-person singular, imperfective)’, conveying the sound of running wheels, is translated into a similar Spanish verb with a component of sound in its meaning, traquetean ‘rattle (third-person plural, imperfective)’.

Table 15. Verbs of Motion. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning).

Translation

Original

(38) Pues mira que mañana habrás de ir al bosque Bo 128

‘Tomorrow to the forest you must go’ Ab 128

Jùk girdì, rytój reikės į gìrę ważiůti Rg 128

In the Spanish text, the original verb ważiůti‘to go’ (38), which denotes motion on some wheeled vehicle, is translated into a lexeme ir ‘to go’ with more general meaning, referring to motion either on a wheeled vehicle or on foot.

Table 16. Verbs of Motion. Lithuanian VAs expressed by verbal constructions.

Translation

Original

(39) para risa de todos, terminan hecho harapos y arrastrándose Bo 432

‘Go crawling round half-dressed, a laughing-stock.’ Ab 432

Kàrtais pùsnůgis ant ápjůko rėplinėja. Rg 432

It is observed that the verb rėplinėja ‘crawls (third-person singular, imperfective)’ (39) is translated into a Spanish gerund arrastrándose ‘crawling’. In the translation, the gerund carries the lexical meaning of the Lithuanian verb and is semantically complemented by the head verb terminan ‘end (third-person plural)’ that has a more general meaning.

1.5. Verbs of the Ingestion concept

The equivalents of the verbs, which refer to the concept of Ingestion take the form of Spanish constructions.

Table 17. Verbs of Ingestion.Equivalents with similar meanings.

Translation

Original

(40) cansado y jadeante sorbe el agua Lv 214

‘Flat on his face he groans as he laps up’ St 214

Iſʒtiſas ir diddey duſáudams Wándenį láka Vd 214

(41) y en la taberna beba cada tarde, trincando sin medida? Bo 398

‘And have a booze-up in the pub each day?’ Ab 398

`Ir prisirýt aklaý kasdën į kàrczamą lènda? Rg 398

(42) y charlando se meten las viandas en la boca. Bo 303

‘And shovel food into their blabbing mouths.’ Ab 303

`Irgi bezaùnydams walgiùs į gómurį kìsza. Rg 303

Three occurrences of Ingestion verbs with equivalents of similar meanings were found. As shown in the example (41), the original verb prisirýt ‘to have booze-up’, which has a negative connotation, is translated into a neutral Spanish word beba ‘would drink’. Other two verbs, found in the Spanish verses (40) and (42), semantically correspond to Lithuanian VAs.

Table 18. Verbs of Ingestion. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning).

Translation

Original

(43) cómo nuestros señores se divierten Bo 293

‘Observing how our lords regaled themselves.’ Ab 293

Kàd pamatýczau bèn, kaip pónai mús’ czestawójas Rg 293

In the given example (43), the verb czestawójas‘regale (third-person plural, imperfective)’ refers either to drinking or eating but, in the Spanish translation, it is translated into a more general Spanish word se divierten ‘have fun’, thus denoting not only Ingestion but also other actions that are related to celebrations.

Table 19. Verbs of Ingestion. Lithuanian VAs expressed by figurative words/idioms.

Translation

Original

(44) En la cruel calorina calmábamos la sed con vil cerveza / o tragando algún sorbo del estanque Bo 366–367

‘And water from a puddle we have drunk.’ Ab 367

`Ir wandèns malkùs isz kláno sémdami gėrėm. Rg 367

(45) y con ansia devoran embutidos ahumados Ai 533

‘They grin at us, but still admire our bread’ Wc 533

`Ir deszràs rukįtas sù pasimėgimu wálgo. Žr 533

It was observed that the verb of neutral semantic gėrėm‘drank (second-person plural, imperfective’ (44) was translated using a Spanish idiom calmábamos la sed ‘quenched thirst’. The neutral Lithuanian verb wálgo ‘eat (third-person plural, imperfective’ (45) was also rendered with a more colorful Spanish lexeme devoran ‘devour, eat (third-person plural, imperfective)’, which denotes the action of food consumption performed by an animal.

Table 20. Verbs of Ingestion. Lithuanian VAs expressed by verbal constructions.

Translation

Original

(46) acabarás tragando vituallas sin sazón Bo 413

‘For later on your fare will be unspiced,’ Ab 413

Kàd paskiáus walgiùs taw reìks iszpliùrpt nedarýtus. Rg 413

In the translation, a Spanish gerund tragando‘gulping down’ (46), derived from the verb tragar ‘to gulp down’, is used. The latter verb is found in everyday speech and is adopted to replace the Lithuanian verb iszpliùrpt ‘to gulp down’.

Table 21. Verbs of Ingestion. Equivalents with differing meanings.

Translation

Original

(47) hemos de contentarnos con comer algo apenas Gp 525

‘In sorry plight we chew dry scraps of food’ Sj 526

Kartais dėl Wargû wôs ſauſą Trupputį kramtôm’ Pl 526

As it could be noted, the Lithuanian verb kramtôm‘chew (second-person plural, imperfective)’ (47), which metonymically indicates eating, is translated into Spanish verbal periphrasis hemos de contentarnos ‘we should be content with’.

1.6. Verbs of the Entertainment concept

Almost all of the verbs which evoke the concept of Entertainment are translated into Spanish verbs.

Table 22. Verbs of Entertainment. Equivalents with similar meanings.

Translation

Original

(48) Barbe y Femi entonaban las canciones del lino Bo 210

‘Pimė and Barbė sang of flax, the wives’ Ab 210

Bàrbė sù Pimè daináwo pászuku daìną Rg 210

(49) Lauro tocaba el birimbao soplando Bo 191

‘Lauras drew noises from a horseshoe horn,’ Ab 191

Laùras sù pirsztù dambrélį skàmbino púsdams Rg 191

(50) a las mozas, mandándoles bailar con los gañanes Bo 223

‘Urged them to dance with handsome neighbor lads.’ Ab 223

Sù puikeìs kaimýnu klápais rágino szókti. Rg 223

(51) Pliscus tocaba el címbalo, Cobo el violín tañía Bo 220

‘A zither Plyckius plucked, while Kubas scraped / A fiddle’ Ab 220–221

Plýckius cimbolùs o Kùbas czìrszkino smùiką Rg 220

In the original, the lexeme czìrszkino ‘strummed (third-person singular, imperfective)’ (51), which denotes playing a string instrument, is translated using a Spanish verb tañía ‘played (third-person singular, imperfective)’ indicating playing a string or percussion instrument. Other Lithuanian verbs in Table 22 have Spanish equivalents with the same meaning as in the original: daináwo ‘sang (third-person plural, imperfective)’ – entonaban ‘sang (third-person plural, imperfective)’; skàmbino ‘played (third-person singular, imperfective)’ – tocaba ‘played (third-person singular, imperfective)’; szókti ‘to dance’ – bailar ‘to dance’.

Table 23. Verbs of Entertainment. Equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning + specifying lexemes/expressions).

Translation

Original

(52) y el Bisojo, tensando bien los labios, hizo sonar la flauta Bo 221

‘A fiddle, and Žnairiukas piped away’ Ab 220–221

Bèt Żnairiùks zubùs isztèmpęs bìrbino wàmzdį. Rg 221

There was a case where a figurative verb of the original bìrbino‘piped away (third-person singular, imperfective)’(52) was changed into a binary construction hizo sonar ‘made sound’. The first constituent of the construction is a verb of general meaning (hizo) and the second lexeme is a more specific verb (sonar).

Conclusions

On the basis of the collected data, it can be claimed that the translator is faithful to the original text. In order to preserve the expressiveness of the poem, the Spanish translation uses an abundance of verbal lexemes.

The VAs which express the concept of Work are mostly translated into verbs with similar meanings. There were cases where equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning + specifying lexemes/expressions or lexemes with more general meaning) were adopted in the translation. There was one case, in which the VA was translated with a figurative word, and another, in which the VA was rendered as a participial construction. Some verbs were translated into equivalents with differing meanings. VAs which evoke the concept of Damaging were mainly translated adopting verbal equivalents. These verbal constructions could be equivalents with similar meanings, equivalents with meanings of different extent (lexemes with more general meaning + specifying lexemes/expressions or lexemes with more general meaning), figurative words/idioms. Most verbs which evoke Speak on topic concept were translated as verbs in the Spanish version of the poem. However, most of the verbal equivalents have differing meanings. It was also noticed that one VA that expresses this concept was translated into a nominal Spanish construction. All of the equivalents of the Motion situation preserve their verbal nature in the Spanish text. All VAs were translated into the verbs with similar or differing meanings. In one case a Spanish gerund was adopted. The Lithuanian VAs which refer to the concept of Ingestion were mostly translated into equivalents with similar meanings or equivalents with meanings of different extent. Also, the equivalents with differing meanings, figurative words/idioms and verbal constructions were adopted in the Spanish version of the poem. Almost all of the verbs which express the concept of Entertainment were translated into Spanish verbs with similar meanings.

References

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[1]613 VAs are used in the original of the poem “Metai” (Lisauskaitė, Zubaitienė 2019, p. 109).

[2]In the Lithuanian Grammar, the term actional verbs is used.

[3]In the further examples, a grapheme <a> with a twig is changed into an<ą>, an<i> with a twig – into an<į>, a <ʒ> with diacritics – into a <ź>, a <z> with a hoop above – into a <ż>.

[4]In this article, the English verses of the poem were extracted from “The Seasons” by Kristijonas Donelaitis, translated by Peter Tempest; notes and editing by Lionginas Pažūsis (1985).

[5]In thecaseof the Lithuanian VA kirsti ‘to cut’ the figurative word to puff ‘to breathe fast and with difficulty’ is used in the English translation of the poem.