Verbum https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum <p>Įkurtas 2010 m. Publikuoja germanų, romanų ir slavų lingvistikos bei edukologijos tyrimų tematikos straipsnius.</p> Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press en-US Verbum 2029-6223 <p>Susipažinkite su autorių teisėmis&nbsp;<a href="http://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/journalpolicy">žurnalo politikoje</a>&nbsp;skiltyje Autorių teisės.&nbsp;</p> A Pedagogical Perspective on the Definite and the Indefinite Article in the Romanian Language. Challenges for Foreign Learners https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16483 <p>All Romance languages have developed the definite and the indefinite article via the Vulgar Latin (Classical Latin did not use articles), the language of the Roman colonists. According to Joseph H. Greenberg (1978), the definite article predated the indefinite one by approximately two centuries, being developed from demonstratives through a complex process of grammaticalization. Many areas of nowadays` Romania were incorporated into the Roman Empire for about 170 years. After two military campaign, the Roman emperor Trajan conquered Dacia, east of Danube.The Romans imposed their own administration and inforced Latin as lingua franca.The language of the colonists, mixed with the native language and, later on, with various languages spoken by the many migrant populations that followed the Roman retreat resulted in a new language (Romanian), of Latin origins. The Romanian language, attested in the 16<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;Century, in documents written by foreign travellers, uses four different types of articles. Being a highly inflected language, Romanian changes the form of the articles according to the gender, the number and the case of the noun As compared to the other Romance languages, Romanian uses the definite article enclitically. Thus, the definite article and the noun constitute a single word. The present paper aims at discussing, analysing and providing an overview of the use of definite and indefinite articles. The general norm and its various exceptions are examined from a broader perspective, synchronically and diachronically. The pedagogical perspective is meant to offer a comprehensible synthesis to foreign learners.</p> Ovidiu Ivancu Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 1 1 10.15388/Verb.6 К вопросу о речевой агрессии и инвективах в современных антилиберальных новых медиа https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16484 <p>В статье рассматривается речевая агрессия в антилиберальных «новых медиа». Материал избран как актуальный на данном этапе в связи с провозглашенным В. Путиным крахом мировой либеральной идеи. В статье рассмотрены цели речевой агрессии, ее объекты и средства выражения. Выделены основные постоянно реализующиеся обвинения в адрес целостного направления общественной мысли. Показано, что средством реализации агрессивного потенциала являются не инвективы бранного характера, а лексемы, не имеющие негативной окраски в своих словарных определениях. Можно говорить об определенном алгоритме создания дискурса речевой агрессии, когда одна лексема с агрессивным потенциалом, появляющимся в данном дискурсе, автоматически влечет за собой появление другой лексемы. Анализ показал, что антилиберальный дискурс отличается кроме антилиберализма, антисемитизмом, гомофобией и отрицательным отношением к интернету. Антилиберальная среда не всегда оказывается провластной – объектом ее критики становится и глава государства, которому приписываются стандартные обвинения.</p> Liudmila Kravcova Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 2 2 10.15388/Verb.7 The Equivalents of the Verbs of Activity in the Spanish Translation of “Metai” (“The Seasons”) by Kristijonas Donelaitis https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16485 <p>The equivalence of translation has become a concern for many Lithuanian researchers. The term equivalence is described in the monograph “Contrastive Semantics” (2007) by AloyzasGudavičius. LionginasPažūsis (2014) discusses problems that arise from the lack of equivalence at word level. There are many articles on approaches or strategies of equivalence (D. Masaitienė 1996; A. Leonavičienė 2010; L. Černiuvienė 2013). Some scholars choose to examine the strategies applied in the translation of some linguistic items in novels (V. Končius&amp; A. Nausėda 2006; C. Caro Dugo 2010, 2014, 2015, 2016; A. Cerri; I. Janavičienė 2016). However, there is a lack of research that analyses the Spanish translation of the poem “Metai” or a particular linguistic aspect of this Spanish text. Recent years saw several attempts to fill this gap(C. Caro Dugo 2014, 2015, 2016; A. Cerri 2015). The current research aims to examine the equivalents of the verbs of activity (VAs) in the Spanish translation of the poem. The paper focuses only on those VAs that express actions performed by persons. The VAs which denote actions performed by other living beings or forces of nature were excluded. The research covers 52 verses with verbs of activity, selected from the poem, and their equivalents in the translation into Spanish, which are subjected to qualitative content analysis and means ofcomparative methodology. 52 constructions that express the concepts of Work, Damaging, Speakon topic, Motion, Ingestion and Entertainment were selected applying the qualitative content analysis. The Spanish equivalents of these constructions are examined through the comparative methodology. The obtained results indicated that the translator is faithful to the original text. In order to preserve the expressiveness of the poem, the Spanish translation uses an abundance of verbal lexemes. It was noticed that the equivalents of the same meaning or verbs with a more general meaning specified by an additional lexeme or construction were the main strategies adopted in VA translation into Spanish. In one case only was a Lithuanian verb changed into a Spanish noun. Idioms and figurative words were also chosen as a VA translation strategy in several instances. Nonetheless, all of these lexemes, as derivative of verbs or verbal forms, preserve the verbal nature.This workshould be useful tothe semanticists and translators.</p> Agnė Lisauskaitė Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 3 3 10.15388/Verb.8 Enciklopedinės žinios dvikalbiuose žodynuose: geografijos sritis https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16486 <p><span lang="en-US">Dažno dvikalbio žodyno megastruktūros lygmenyje pateĩkiama priedų, skirtų vienõs ar abiejų gretinamų kalbų gramatikos aprašams, toponimams ir dažniausiai vartojamiems sutrumpinimams. Makrostruktūros ir mikrostruktūros lygmenyse įtráukiama nemažai su tam tikra pažintine sritimi susijusios leksikos (etnografijos, istorijos, geografijosir t. t.), tad siekiant ją paaiškinti pateĩkiama nemažai įvairios enciklopedinės informacijos. Pastaruoju metu Europos leksikografai diskutuoja apie tai, kad žodynuose iš viso derėtų vengti priedų, o juose esančią informaciją pagal galimybes įtraukti į patį leksikografinio leidinio tekstą. Tokia nuostata grindžiama tuo, jog kiekvienas papildomos informacijos šaltinis žodyne pareikalauja iš naudotojo papildomų laiko ir energijos sąnaudų. Kita vertus, naudotojas gali būti nesusipažinęs arba per mažai susipažinęs su žodyno struktūra ir nežinoti, jog papildomą informaciją galima susirasti ne žodyno tekste, o prieduose. Šio straipsnio tikslas, remiantis analitiniu ir aprašomuoju metodu, panagrinėti keturis žodynus: B. Piesarsko Didįjį lietuvių–anglų kalbų žodyną (2006), A. Lyberio Lietuvių–rusų kalbų žodyną (2015), D. Melnikienės Didįjį lietuvių-prancūzų kalbų žodyną (2012) ir E. Jakaitienės bei E. Berg-Olsen Lietuvių-norvegų kalbų žodyną (2016) geografinių žinių pateikimo aspektu: </span>įvertinti šių žinių pateikimą visuose struktūriniuose lygmenyse: viso leidinio (megastruktūroje), korpuso (makrostruktūroje) ir straipsnio (mikrostruktūroje).</p> Aušra Valančiauskienė Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 4 4 10.15388/Verb.9 L’enseignement des expressions figées par le biais du roman graphique Persépolis https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16487 <p>&nbsp;L’article se propose de montrer les avantages didactiques d’un roman graphique dans l’enseignement de la langue française. Nous explicitons l’importance du rapport texte-image et le potentiel du langage verbal du roman graphique, et nous parlons de la nécessité de l’apprentissage des expressions figées pour une bonne maîtrise de la langue et des aspects marquants propres de la bande dessinée qui contribuent à leur compréhension et leur apprentissage ; nous montrons, enfin, comment l’adoption, dans le cadre d’une analyse contrastive de la langue, du roman graphique Persépolis de Marjane Satrapi a pu aider les étudiants à comprendre plus aisément les expressions figées.</p> Marie-Denise Sclafani Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 5 5 10.15388/Verb.10 "Modern Hellenism": the pragmatem https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16488 <p>Xavier BLANCO, Salah MEJRI, Les pragmatèmes. Préface d’Alain Rey, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2018, 214 p.</p> Danguolė Melnikienė Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 6 6 10.15388/Verb.11 Redakcinė kolegija https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/16489 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Danguolė Melnikienė Autorinės teisės (c) 2019 Authors http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-20 2019-12-20 10 1 1 The Coda Voicing Contrast in Lithuanian Learners’ English https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/12609 <p>[straipsnis ir santrauka anglų kalba]</p> Lina Bikelienė Milda Vaitkevičiūtė Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 11 20 10.15388/Verb.2018.2 Fossiles lexicaux dans des expressions figées https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/12610 <p>[straipsnis ir santrauka prancūzų kalba, santrauka anglų kalba]</p> Xavier Blanco Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 31 40 10.15388/Verb.2018.4 Begegnungsschule und Fremdsprache: Der pädagogisch-institutionelle Diskurs in Bezug auf die mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle Kompetenzförderung in einer deutschen Auslandsschule https://www.zurnalai.vu.lt/verbum/article/view/12611 <p>[full article, abstract in German; abstract in English]</p> <p>Im Kapitel 8 des&nbsp;Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmens für Sprachen (GER) wird die sogenannte mehrsprachige und plurikulturelle Kompetenz als weiteres Ziel des Sprachenlernens erläutert. Dementsprechend wird die allgemeine Sprachkompetenz „nicht als Schichtung oder als ein Nebeneinander von getrennten Kompetenzen verstanden, sondern vielmehr als eine komplexe oder sogar gemischte Kompetenz“ (Trim et al. 2001, p. 163) betrachtet. Insgesamt werden 140 Auslandsschulen mit Ressourcen des deutschen Auswärtigen Amtes in 71 Ländern gefördert. Von 80.000 Schülern besitzen ca. 73% weder die deutsche Staatsbürgerschaft noch sprechen sie Deutsch als Erstsprache. Meistens handelt es sich um private Bildungsanstalten, welche als bikulturelle Begegnungsschulen bezeichnet und von Kindern und Jugendlichen aus ökonomisch privilegierten Elternhäusern besucht werden. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt sich die Kernfrage: Inwiefern entspricht der dabei erwartete interkulturelle Dialog den Austauschdynamiken und Identitätsprozessen, wie sie im Schulalltag festgestellt werden können, und auch den Prämissen des GER in Bezug auf interkulturelle und mehrsprachige Kompetenz? An welcher sprachlichen Ideologie orientiert sich der Diskurs und die pädagogische Praxis in solchen binationalen Schuleinrichtungen? Die Analyse des institutionellen Diskurses der untersuchten Einrichtung zeigt ihren ideologischen Unterbau und die soziopolitische Zielgruppe auf, die sie in den Blick nimmt, sowie ihre Einstellung zu Interkulturalität und Mehrsprachigkeit. Die überwiegende Spracheinstellung verweist noch auf den „Nativitätsmythos“ (Rajagopalan 1997, p. 226 f.), indem die Sprachkompetenz des zweisprachigen Individuums hinsichtlich eines anachronistischen, imaginären ‚Muttersprachlers‘ bewertet wird.</p> <h3>Encounter Schools and Foreign Language: The Pedagogical-Institutional Discourse about Multilingual and Pluricultural Competence Promotion in a German School Abroad</h3> <p lang="en-US">Among the 80,000 students attending the 140 German schools abroad, about 73% are not German or ‘native’ German speakers. These are usually private schools, called “bicultural schools of encounter” frequented by children and young people from the economically privileged classes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the permeability of the space of this encounter and between the internal structures of the same. We seek to elucidate the extent to which the model of intercultural dialogue envisaged by this political project corresponds to the dynamics of exchanges and identity re-elaborations that occur organically and to the assumptions of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in relation to the development of intercultural and plurilingual competences. Analyzing the presentation of the institutional profile and pedagogical plan in the homepage of one of these schools, we hope to counter the vestiges of this proposal of literacy in the school environment to the social and linguistic representations shared by these institutions and their target audience. In this context, the key question arises: To what extent does the expected intercultural dialogue correspond to the exchange dynamics and identity processes that can be identified in everyday school life, and to the premises of the CEFR in relation to intercultural and multilingual competence? At which linguistic ideology is the discourse and pedagogical practice in such binational institutions oriented?</p> <p lang="en-US">The analysis of the institutional discourse of a bilingual German school located in Brazil aims to reveal its ideological substructure and the socio-political target group that it looks at, as well as its attitude to interculturality and multilingualism. According to the results, the predominant language attitude still refers to the "myth of nativity" (Rajagopalan 1997: 226 f.), in which the linguistic competence of the bilingual individual is evaluated in terms of an anachronistic, imaginary 'native speaker'.</p> <p lang="en-US">The theoretical basis for this study is presented in the first two chapters, followed by a brief discussion of the methodology applied on this research. Afterwards, chapter 5 deals in depth with the institutional discourse on the examined school concept. Chapter 6 deals with language attitudes and transcultural processes in reports on multidisciplinary activities and the following concluding chapter tries to reconstruct the challenges of a partly organic, partly planned development towards a multilingual (school) identity.</p> Robson Carapeto-Conceição Autorinės teisės (c) 2018 Vilniaus universiteto leidykla / Vilnius University Press https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-20 2018-12-20 10 41 50 10.15388/Verb.2018.5